Étude des mécanismes de transfert de chiralité en catalyse hétérogène
|Advisor:||McBreen, Peter Hugh|
|Abstract:||The widespread use of chemical synthesis – in domains as varied as the pharmaceutical and petrochemical industries – requires a strong chemical industry, relying onthe use of many catalytic processes. Heterogeneous catalysis is often favoured as it is easier to recycle and reuse the catalysts. A reliable way to improve efficiency in heterogeneous catalysis is to better understand how substrates interact with individual catalytic sites. Many questions remain relating to the activity and selectivity of active sites in asymmetric heterogeneous catalysis. My thesis deals with the characterization of catalyticsites for the enantioselective hydrogenation of activated ketones on chirally modified Pt(111), the so-called Orito reaction, using scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM). The chiral modifiers are structural analogues of cinchonidine. The resolution of STM is sufficient to catalogue tens of thousands of bimolecular complexes according to their interaction geometry. The most abundant motifs are compared to the most stable structures as computed from DFT calculations performed by Pr Hammer’s groupin Aarhus University, in Denmark. The agreement between the STM motifs and images simulated from the DFT calculations allow us to assign a pro-chirality to each complexation geometry. The pro-chirality labels complexes according to the chirality of the resulting alcohol if the substrate were to be hydrogenated in this configuration. We can compare the pro-chiral ratio (pr) for complexes observed by STM to the enantiomeric ratio (er) measured in a catalytic setting. Combining STM imaging with DFT calculations allow us to better understand why some complexation geometries are favoured, thus explaining stereoselction. Chapter 3 presents a series of experiments comparing the assemblies formed by the substrate ketopantolactone (KPL) with three chiral modifiers sharing a similar anchoring moiety: (R)-1-(1-naphthyl)ethylamine ((R)-NEA), (R)-N-Methyl-1-(1-naphthyl) ethylamine ((R)-MNEA) and (R)-1-naphthyl-1,2-ethanediol ((R)-NED). Differences between the observed populations for competing interaction geometries are ascribed to subtle variations in the hydrogen-bond donors moieties. We note that pr and er are roughly in agreement for (R)-NEA/KPL and (R)-NED/KPL assemblies, but not for (R)- MNEA / KPL. Chapter 4 tries to understand how a small structural alteration can change the complexes formed by (R)-NEA and the pro-chiral substrate 2,2,2-trifluoroacetophenone (TFAP). A new chiral modifier (R)-1-(8-methyl-1-naphthyl) ethylamine ((R)-8MeNEA), has been synthesized and differs from (R)-NEA only by an added methylmoiety on the non-substituted aromatic ring. This methyl changes the preorganisation states of chirality transfer complexes, and diffusion among the competing geometries. The binding configurations at the methyl substituent obviously disappear because of steric hindrance. We also record changes in the relative populations of complexation geometries away from the substitution. Such second-order changes must be taken into account for the rational design of chiral modifiers for heterogeneous catalysis. Chapter 5 compares chirality transfer complexes formed by two pro-chiral substrates, methylpyruvate(MP) and methyl3,3,3-trifluoropyruvate(MTFP), with(R)-NEA.MP can form an enolon Pt(111) in hydrogen poor environment, such asan ultra-high vacuum system, if the temperature is high enough. An alternative to MP which cannot form the enolisits trifluorinated analogue: MTFP. Populations of competing chirality transfer complexes involving MP and MTFP differ, including at temperatures below which the enol is formed. These divergences arise from the higher electronegativity of the CF3 moiety, which modifies the adsorption of the ketonic carbonyl, and hence of the whole pro-chiral substrate. The populations of competing (R)-NEA/MTFP geometries are found to better approximate the thermodynamic equilibrium at temperatures above 250 K. This can be explained by increased MTFP mobility, which allows the pro-chiral substrate to sample more efficiently all competing assemblies on the surface.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||21 October 2019|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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