Dysfonction des tissus adipeux : médiateurs inflammatoires et effets de la chirurgie bariatrique

Authors: Labrecque, Jennifer
Advisor: Tchernof, André
Abstract: Obesity is an important risk factor of metabolic and cardiovascular disease development. Under a positive energy imbalance, inadequate adipose tissue remodeling appears to play a determinant role in the onset of cardiometabolic alterations associated with excess fat mass. Adipose tissue dysfunction, related to this pathological remodeling, is characterized by altered fat storage capacity (altered capacity to generate new adipocytes/altered adipogenesis, adipocyte hypertrophy, excessive accumulation of visceral fat), increased number of immune cells infiltrating adipose tissue and oversecretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The overall objective of this master’s thesis was to examine modulators of adipose tissue dysfunction, such as IL-1β, prostaglandin-synthesizing enzymes and bariatric surgery. To achieve this objective, we first examined the impact of IL-1βand prostaglandin-synthesizing enzymes (COX-2 and AKR1B1) on markers related to inflammation and adipogenesis in human omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue samples. We also reviewed available literature documenting the impact of surgery-induced weight loss on macrophage infiltration and on the secretion of a broad spectrum of anti-or pro-inflammatory mediators. Our results show that IL-1β induces a pro-inflammatory response in human adipose tissues, particularly in visceral fat, and acts independently of concomitant prostaglandin release. IL-1β and COX-2 also appear to be critical determinants of adipose tissue pathophysiologic remodeling in obesity, in negatively modulating adipogenesis. Furthermore, reports generally show that bariatric surgery reverses both macrophage infiltration and the altered secretory profile observed in the adipose tissue of patients with obesity. In conclusion, we demonstrated that IL-1β and COX-2could be implicated in the development of adipose tissue dysfunction, although data enable us to describe bariatric surgery as a successful anti-inflammatory strategy, which could partly reverse abdominal adipose tissue dysfunction.
Document Type: Mémoire de maîtrise
Issue Date: 2019
Open Access Date: 18 October 2019
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/36968
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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