Caractérisation des mécanismes de remodelage du microenvironnement hépatique par le mélanome uvéal

Authors: Fugaru, Ioana
Advisor: Landreville, Solange
Abstract: Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary intraocular tumor in adults. Different treatments are offered in order to control the tumor locally. Despite local interventions, 34% of patients develop fatal metastases to the liver less than ten years after the initial diagnosis. Hepatic stellate cells (HSC) are quiescent cells of the liver, which, once activated, dedifferenciate into myofibroblasts and produce an extracellular matrix (ECM). HSCs are major players in fibrosis and have been studied for their role in the pathogenesis of primary liver cancers and metastatic gastrointestinal cancers. We thus studied the interactions between HSCs and uveal melanoma cells (UMCs) by realizing their co-culture in insert in order to better understand the hepatic tropism phenomenon. The gene expression profile of HSC/UMC cocultures was then compared to that of monocultures using DNA microarrays. Several genes that participate in the ECM synthesis, proliferation and host defense were found to be deregulated between these conditions. We also focused on the secretion of 105 cytokines by performing cytokine arrays. We then determined that the migration capacity of HSCs in the presence of UMCs was more efficient than that of HSCs grown in monoculture. Moreover, we produced the first 3D model of liver stroma with HSCs using the self-assembly method of the Centre LOEX. We observed an important disorganization of the ECM when stromas were seeded with UMCs. My work represents an advanced of knowledge on metastatic UM and its liver tropism. My master’s thesis can guide other projects to elucidate interactions between UMCs and hepatic cells in order to identify a potential therapeutic target on which we may act upon to slow down the growth of metastases.
Document Type: Mémoire de maîtrise
Issue Date: 2018
Open Access Date: 26 September 2019
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/36685
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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