Diversité des vésicules extracellulaires dans le lait bovin et leurs activités dans les maladies inflammatoires de l'intestin

Authors: Benmoussa, Abderrahim
Advisor: Provost, Patrick
Abstract: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cellular “fragments” actively released in all biological fluids. They are transported through body circulation and transmit their bioactive content to remote recipient cells. Milk is the biological fluid most enriched in EVs and these encapsulate several bioactive elements with anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects and reduce the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis in vivo. During my thesis, I explored the diversity of EVs present in commercial bovine milk and studied their biological activities in the context of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The results I obtained demonstrate the existence of several EV subsets in commercial bovine milk that I could discriminate using sodium citrate for their isolation. I found these EVs can survive during in-vitro digestion and protect their bioactive content, including microRNAs. After detailing the different microRNAs and proteins encapsulated in these EVs, I found specific markers for certain populations of milk EVs. I also reported the transfer of vesicular bovine miR-223 to human cells in vitro and its biological activity on the expression of a reporter gene. I then explored the biological activities of milk EVs in a mouse model of DSS-induced colitis. The oral intake of milk EVs decreased the symptoms of the disease, restored part of the intestinal microbiota, restored the intestinal barrier and replenished mucin levels. Also, different populations of milk EVs differentially modulated inflammation in the colon, notably by regulating the level of certain IBD-associated microRNAs. Milk therefore contains different EV subsets with different biological activities capable of modulating inflammation and the development of digestive pathologies. Studying the mechanisms underlying their bioactivity could impact the management of inflammatory diseases, improve milk formulations for newborns, and be of importance to public health and industrial milk processing.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2019
Open Access Date: 19 September 2019
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/36556
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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