Étude de la formation et de l'évolution d'espèces hybrides au sein d'un système de levures sauvages
|Abstract:||Hybridization was often considered as impossible or as a blunder for species, as it gave birth to so-called evolutionary dead ends. The observations of hybrid lineages and the accumulation of genomic data lead to the realization that hybridization is rather common in multiple organisms. Hybridization is now recognized as a powerful mechanism for the generation of new lineages. One of the questions still pending is about the contribution of hybridization to the speciation process. The few examples of hybrid speciation remain limited to plants and animals. Little data is available for sexual microorganisms which could lead to the belief that their hybrids are poor competitors or suffer from infertility, leading to their extinction in the environment. In the course of this thesis, we used a population genomics approach on a collection of natural isolates of the yeast Saccharomyces paradoxus. The biogeography of this species suggests that the two indigenous lineages found in North America are nascent species. Our analyses revealed a precedently cryptic lineage which rose from the hybridization of the two incipient species. Using this study system in the laboratory, we explored two aspects of hybridization. We first compared the growth of hybrids to their parents’ in multiple environments in search of decreased hybrid performance which could explain their rarity in the natural environment. This approach allowed us to show that hybrids between natural strains often show superior phenotypes when compared to their parents. We then used experimental evolution to follow the dynamics of fertility following hybridization. Our results suggest that initially infertile hybrids can rapidly become fertile again following spontaneaous genome duplication events. The results presented in this thesis contribute to a better understanding of how hybridization can shape the formation of new species, particularly in microorganisms. Also, the genetically modified and evolved strains available can be used in future studies about the ecology and evolution of hybrids.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||13 September 2019|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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