Prédicteurs de la dégénérescence échocardiographique des greffons valvulaires suite à une procédure chirurgicale de Ross dans le traitement des maladies valvulaire aortiques

Authors: Simard, Louis
Advisor: Clavel, Marie-AnnickDagenais, François
Abstract: Aortic valve diseases represent the third most prevalent cardiovascular disease and the second most common indication for open-heart surgery. Despite major breakthroughs in modern medicine and technologies, the only therapeutic option proved efficient in reducing mortality and morbidity remains the implantation of a valvular prosthesis. There are two major classes of prostheses, each presenting their own advantages and disadvantages. Mechanical valves, due to their alloy-based structure, hold a high thrombogenic risk profile and thus patients require a lifetime anticoagulating therapy. Unfortunately, beyond being a well-known clinical challenge to adequately control, this treatment significantly increases the risks of suffering from major bleeding events. However, mechanical valves have shown prolonged lifeexpectancy generally exceeding 25 years. As for bioprostheses, they do not require any anticoagulation but are widely known to degenerate progressively throughout the years and must typically be replaced after 15 to 20 years. Consequently, mechanical valves are currently preferred in patients with long estimated life-expectancy and bioprostheses are preferes in older patients (>65 years). Nonetheless, there are no perfect option and a strong controversy remains regarding the optimal prosthesis in young adults patients (<60 years). In order to overcome the significant drawbacks of the traditional prostheses, a third surgical option was proposed: the Ross procedure. It consists in replacing the degenerated aortic valve by translocating the native pulmonary valve in aortic position. The surgeon then uses a homograft in pulmonary position to complete the procedure. This technique offers the best hemodynamic profiles of all prostheses and allows a bypass of the anticoagulation therapy. On the downside, though, it increases complications risks and surgically affects a fully healthy and functional organ being the pulmonary valve. The main hypothesis at the root of this Master degree project was that the deterioration of autografts and homografts are linked to clinical factors and the risks can therefore be predicted. Therefore, the main objectives of this study were, first of all, to evaluate the integrity of Ross procedure grafts when performed in a young adult population suffering from severe aortic valve diseases and, secondly, to identify determinants and predictors of poor post-operative evolution of both the pulmonay autograft and homograft.
Document Type: Mémoire de maîtrise
Issue Date: 2019
Open Access Date: 12 September 2019
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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