Les systèmes biosédimentaires et la diagénèse d'une rampe carbonatée Ordovicienne, Bassin de Tarim, Chine

Authors: Shen, Yuefeng
Advisor: Neuweiler, Fritz; Bingsong, Yu
Abstract: The Ordovician biosedimentary record of the Tarim Basin offers the opportunity to tackle four major scientific issues related to the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event: i) the phylogenesis of organisms incertae sedis, ii) the paleodiversity of benthic primary producers (calcareous algae, calcimicrobes), iii) the nature of authigenic sea-floor precipitates (automicrite), and iv) diagenesis in terms of porosity evolution and the geochemical record of environmental perturbations causing major biosedimentary turnovers (sponges, crinoids versusbenthic algae). The typological, morphometric and microstructural analysis of the mound-forming microproblematicum Halysis Høeg, 1932 concludes for a siphonous green alga with an affinity to Bryopsidales, Udoteaceae, morphotype Flabellia petiolate (Turra) Nizamuddin 1987. Early Katian Halysismounds form part of a shallow-subtidal carbonate ramp dominated by algal-pellet sand sheets. Their accretion was controlled by autocyclic drivers such as increments of sediment flux and burial followed by episodes of omission and algal growth. In the Tarim Basin, the diversity of benthic primary producers increases substantially during the Upper Ordovician (Katian) Belodina confluens Zone. Compared to diversity curves derived from other regions (Laurentia, Baltoscandia), in the Tarim Basin there is a protraction of diversification by about 4 Ma. The global diversity curve of benthic primary producers is similar to those derived from some herbivorous and suspension-feeding fossil groups (eleutherozoan echinoderms, gastropods). Five kinds of authigenic sea-floor precipitates (automicrite) are present in Darriwilian calathid-demosponge carbonate mounds, altogether formerly interpreted as ‘microbial carbonate’. A good correlation of fluorescence and cathodoluminescence of automicrites indicates that induced and supported organomineralization produced automicrite, probably via the permineralization of non-living organic substrates adsorbing dissolved metal-humate complexes. Using six parameters and seventeen characters, four automicrites turn out to be non-microbial instead likely represent relics of calcified metazoan tissue (sponges, attachment structures of stalked invertebrates). One automicrite is microbial in origin but is post-mound in age succeeding a disconformity. Using a set of paragenetic sequences, component-specific geochemical sampling was performed to determine the variation of carbon and oxygen stable isotopic composition. There are two distinct stratigraphic levels separated by Δδ13C ≈ +2.5‰ (PDB).Both levels display a subparallel trend of decreasing δ18O typical for increasing temperature during burial. Least altered δ18O values are equally separated along the two stratigraphic levels (Δδ18O ≈ +2.0‰). This coupled positive δ13C-δ18O excursion is considered the result of an increasing burial rate of organic carbon (formation of hydrocarbon source rocks) and subsequent climatic cooling causing a biosedimentary turnover (sponges, crinoids versusbenthic algae) along the Sandbian-Katian boundary interval.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2017
Open Access Date: 12 September 2019
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/36433
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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