L'apport philosophique du sens commun : Bergson, Cavell, Deleuze et le renouveau du cinéma québécois

Authors: Fradet, Pierre-Alexandre
Advisor: De Koninck, Thomas; Moreau, Pierre-François
Abstract: The eminently polysemic concept of common sense was depreciated by a vast segment of Western philosophy, which saw at best in it the expression of unwarranted beliefs, at worst the manifestation of erroneous and naïve beliefs. Where many commentators have pinpointed critiques of common sense in the thoughts of Henri Bergson, Stanley Cavell and Gilles Deleuze, three prominent figures of the philosophy of cinema, we strive here to bring out the positive conception they develop of that concept, notwithstanding the occasional suspicion they may cast on it. To put it in more precise terms, we seek to explain to what extent certain meanings of common sense are apt to satisfy the ambition of knowing reality itself. In the first place, we review the argument elaborated by certain speculative realists (specifically Quentin Meillassoux and Graham Harman) in order to clarify, on the one hand, reflections which will be the object of discussions and replies in the subsequent chapters, and, on the other hand, to show that the philosophical depreciation of common sense goes on even in the most contemporary debates on objectivity. We then bring out the angles under which, according to Bergson, Cavell and Deleuze, common sense is apt to bring us closer to reality itself. In the second place, we enter fully into the field of cinema and examine in what way different works associated with the revival of Quebec cinema (Denis Côté, Stéphane Lafleur, Sébastien Pilote, Rafaël Ouellet, Xavier Dolan, Anne Émond, Rodrigue Jean, the collective Épopée, Mathieu Denis and Simon Lavoie) end up completing, radicalizing or criticizing in their way the reflections developed in the first part around common sense and the real. In opposition to those who characterize those works as « mimetic », « thoughtless » and « aestheticizing », we thus bring to the fore the way in which those films, paying attention to the depth of ordinary experience and to the requirement of finding a certain balance between incessant becoming and constant stability, do succeed in nuancing and refining philosophy. Keywords: common sense, real, ordinary, thing-in-itself, objectivity, subjectivity, over-interpretation, popular culture, actual, virtual, becoming, intensity, concreteness, cinema, Henri Bergson, Stanley Cavell, Gilles Deleuze, Quentin Meillassoux, Graham Harman, Tristan Garcia, revival of Quebec cinema.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2017
Open Access Date: 6 September 2019
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/36373
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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