Présentéisme en contexte des petites et moyennes entreprises : étude des déterminants individuels et psychosociaux

Authors: Knani, Mouna
Advisor: Biron, CarolineFournier, Pierre-Sébastien
Abstract: The issue of presenteeism, attending work when ill, warrants further theoretical and empirical research. A literature review on the topic shows that (1) research on the relationship between psychosocial risks and presenteeism is largely atheoretical, (2) few studies have investigated the relationship between presenteeism and health, (3) positive motivational factors explaining presenteeism have been ignored, (4) presenteeism has not been considered in the context of small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs), and (5) the effect of company size on presenteeism levels has not been studied. The general objective of the thesis is to better understand the individual and psychosocial determinants of presenteeism in SMEs. The first paper in the thesis aims to develop theoretical propositions to explain presenteeism in SMEs. It is proposed that the particular context of human resource management (HRM), occupational health and safety (OHS) affect the psychosocial environment of SMEs. The paper posits that employees at SMEs are more susceptible to psychosocial risks such as heavy job demands, poor social support, lack of job control, and job insecurity, and therefore to presenteeism than employees at large companies. It is proposed that the relationships between the psychosocial work environment and presenteeism are exacerbated in the context of SMEs. Individual factors including commitment, owner-manager behavior, and financial insecurity are also viewed as promoting presenteeism. This concept paper will help people better understand presenteeism in SMEs and develop a theoretical foundation for its individual and psychosocial determinants, considering the SME working environment. The second paper tests some of the propositions detailed in the first conceptual paper. It explores the relationship between the psychosocial risks of two theoretical models (the demand-controlsupport model [DCS] and the effort-reward imbalance model [ERI]), presenteeism, and employee mental and physical health. The paper also assesses the effect of company size on the level of exposure to psychosocial risks and presenteeism, as well as the correlation among psychosocial risks, presenteeism, and health. A structural equation model was tested using data collected as part of Enquête québécoise sur les conditions de travail, d’emploi et de santé et de sécurité du travail (EQCOTESST, N = 4,608 respondents. This model suggests that job demands, poor social support, and effort-reward imbalance encourage presenteeism, which in turn is associated with more mental and physical health problems. The results also show that: 1) employees in large entreprises are more exposed to high job demands and low social support compared to employees in small businesses. However, workers in small businesses are more exposed to effort-rewards imbalance; 2) The prevalence of presenteeism is lower in small businesses compared to medium and large; 3) The company's size does not moderate the strength of the relationship between psychosocial risks, presenteeism and health. This last result implies that no matter the size of the business, the pressures on the individual have the same effect on choosing to work while ill, and on the consequences of that choice on health...
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2018
Open Access Date: 29 August 2019
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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