Sources et distribution du sélénium et de la sélénonéine au sein des écosystèmes arctiques
|Advisor:||Massé, Guillaume; Ayotte, Pierre; Lemire, Mélanie|
|Abstract:||Traditional foods from the sea have always been an important component of the diet of Inuit of the Canadian Arctic. These organisms provide several nutritional benefits, including high levels of energetic fatty acids and microelements such as selenium (Se). Se is essential to human health and Inuit populations exhibit among the highest blood levels of Se worldwide. In contrast to other populations, Se is mainly present in Inuit blood as selenoneine, a recently identified organic form of Se. Recent studies suggest that selenoneine may participate in methylmercury (MeHg) detoxification mechanisms. Animals cannot synthesize selenoneine and our knowledge about the origin and the distribution of Se and selenoneine in the Arctic marine environment is scarce. The main aim of this study was to determine total Se, selenoneine and multiple biomarker concentrations in a broad range of marine organisms.Two food chains (pelagic and pelago-benthic) were studied in the context of the GreenEdge and BriGHTprojects. Isotopic composition (δ¹⁵N, δ¹³C), abundance of lipid biomarkers (HBIs and fatty acids) and selenium and selenoneine concentrations were determined in tissues from representative species. Our analyses revealed high concentrations of Se in several species of the benthic food chain, particularly in bivalve and walrus tissues. In walrus, selenoneine accounted for up to 45% of total Se. Although the origin of selenoneine remains uncertain, these results, combined with isotopic and biomarker analyses, suggest that sea ice is a source of Se for Arctic ecosystems. Since selenoneine is synthesized by bacteria and fungi, it is likely that these organisms, found in the sediments or on the skin of marine mammals, are also the source in the Arctic.|
|Document Type:||Mémoire de maîtrise|
|Open Access Date:||8 August 2019|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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