Intégration de la technologie d'électro-activation en solution comme approche écologique dans le processus de valorisation du tourteau de soja
|Advisor:||Aider, Mohammed; Hammami, Riadh|
|Abstract:||Recently, the demand to find the alternative sources of valuable compounds such as proteins increased. Soybean meal is a valuable source of proteins, carbohydrates and other compounds. These compounds can be valorized from soybean meal and used in human feed.However, to extract valuable substances usually conventional acids and alkalis are used. The use of these chemical solutions, in its turn, has a big impact on the environment as well as other negative consequences. As a result, modern enterprises are more interested in sustainable extraction technologies in order to reduce these negative consequences.To solve these problems the technology of electro-activation (EA) was observed and showed good abilities in extracting of the valuable substances. This technology requires only water, salt and electricity. This work was aimed to study weather this alternative type of extraction is effective for soybean meal valorization.The first objective was to study conventional extraction and its ability to extract proteins and carbohydrates. Certain parameters of conventional extraction affect the most protein extractability.Thus, from pH, meal to solvent ratio, and salt concentration parameters, the pH of the extracting medium had the most significant effect on protein extractability for conventional extracts. The procedure of extraction was carried out using alkaline (NaOH) and acid (HCl) solutions. As a result, a soluble dry matter composed of proteins, carbohydrates and minerals was extracted from soybean meal. The obtained results showed that the both alkaline and acid methods, that were used, are effective in terms of extraction of soluble dry matter with significant qualitative and quantitative differences. The alkaline extraction was significantly more effective in terms of the total extracted dry matterand protein content in the extracted material with mean values of 39.97 ± 0.23 and 43.35 %± 2.90, respectively. In fact, this study demonstrated the effectiveness and rational use of the dual acid-alkaline extraction to enhance the soybean meal valorization for food applications and provide reduction of waste generated by the soybean oil industry. Second objective was to study the influence of electro-activated solutions on proteins extracted from soybean meal and to compare them to the conventional solutions obtained in the first objective. In order to produce electro-activated samples, the optimal parameters of electro-activation for high extraction yield from soybean meal were studied. It was observed that pH changes, right after the electricity is applied, each 10 mins till 60 mins the pH increased significantly. After the extraction of compounds by electro-activation technique was performed, the comparison of the conventional and electro-activated samples took place. It was found that electro-activation is effective as protein extraction method and for extraction of other compounds with beneficial properties for environment. However, conventional extraction is harmful for the environment, even though the commercial extracts were of higher extraction yield and with the bands of bigger molecular weight. Nonetheless, it was found that when the contact time of electro-activated solution with material is increased, the extraction yield and quality of protein is significantly higher. While for conventional extracts treated by the same time there was no significant difference.Third objective aimed to study the comparison of functional properties and antioxidant activity of soybean meal extracts obtained by conventional extraction and using electro-activated solutions.The commercial samples were characterized by superior water absorption and foaming capacity. In contrast, electro-activated samples were characterized by superior emulsification properties. Therefore, conventional samples showed higher antioxidant activity (92.31±1.5%) than electro-activated ones (47.46±0.94%). Overall, this study demonstrated favorable functional and antioxidant properties of samples made by electro-activation method.The fourth objective was to evaluate the behaviour of functional beverage by using protein-carbohydrate extract obtained from soybean meal produced by electro-activation technology. The results showed that the particle size value was ≤ 0.2μm for majority of thesamples. However, with an increasing of the flow the particle size also increased due to large protein particles formed as complexes of a definite size. Furthermore, the behaviour of systems had Newtonian nature and shear-thinning behavior with the low viscosity which is good for such products as beverages. In addition, the turbidity and z-potential measurements showed that the system of products is not stable in pH range 3-10. Moreover, solubility of samples was quite good, especially for certain samples, it was 97.76±0.04 % and 97.53±0.18%. To conclude, these beverages are high in protein and can serve as nutritional beverages. Regarding the result of this work it can be claimed that electro-activated solutions as extracting agents are quite powerful. Also, additional and very important advantage of electro-activation is option of rejection from conventional chemicals which is an important point for sustainable development.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||7 August 2019|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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