Développement d'ingrédients alimentaires à partir d'érables : valorisation des extraits des écorces d'érables et du sirop de qualité inférieure
|Advisor:||Stevanovic-Janezic, Tatjana; Ratti, Cristina|
|Abstract:||Rising consumers’ inclinations toward alternative sources of foods that are healthy and natural have catalyzed the industry on finding unique sources, notably plant-based ones. Maple syrup, obtained from the sap of sugar and red maple trees, is widely consumed as food. In addition, barks of these species were used as traditional medicines by the First Nations and consumed in tea infusions. With the industrialization and extensive use of forest products such as pulp and papers, lumbers, etc., high volumes of bark residues from forest-based industries have become available. About 17 million m3 of bark are produced annually in Canada, of which, only a fraction is used for direct energy production by combustion and the rest is landfilled as waste. On the other hand, maple industries are experiencing economical burden due to the year-over-year accumulation of low quality syrup as surplus, representing about 21-38% of total syrup production annually. In this context, this project has focused on valorizing the maple bark and surplus syrup to develop innovative maple product as natural food ingredients. At first, an investigation on the properties of hot water extract of sugar and red maple barks has revealed that these are rich in antioxidant polyphenols, along with organic and inorganic nutrients (oligo/polysaccharides, proteins and minerals). Furthermore, the study on the effect of crude maple bark extracts on the viability of neutrophil-like cells has revealed their non-cytotoxicity up to the concentration of 100μg/ml, therefore suggesting their use as safe natural food agents. Secondly, a transformation of low quality syrup into maple sugar powders (MSP) was achieved by freeze-drying (FD). A systematic approach was adopted to formulate the FD protocol in order to successfully dehydrate a low quality maple syrup. The total FD time was significantly reduced by 25-38% (from 40h to 25 or 30h) after optimizing the protocol. The formulated FD protocol consisted of primary drying (T=-36 °C, t=15h), and secondary drying (T=30 °C, t=10h) conditions. Thus produced MSP had instant-like property (dissolution time<15s), signifying the huge potential for use in sport-drinks, instant cereal mix, etc. The last part of this project was dedicated to the development of polyphenolsenriched maple sugar powders by adding bark extracts into low quality syrup prior to drying. This allowed for the combined valorization of maple bark hot-water extract and syrup. Polyphenols-enriched maple sugar powders were produced by FD (using the optimized FD protocol developed previously on syrup alone) and vacuum double-drum drying (VDD). Addition of maple bark extracts at only 0.01% w/v has allowed for the syrup enrichment in polyphenols by 13 and 20%, for sugar (SBX) and red maple bark (RBX) extracts, respectively. Both drying processes have caused the significant decrease in total phenolics in the final product. Nevertheless, the total phenolics were still higher (up to 10%) in maple sugar powders with bark extracts (particularly with RBX) than control. FD and VDD produced maple sugar powder with different physicochemical properties (moisture, color, dissolution, flowability, microstructure, morphology, and particle size). MSP produced by FD was amorphous, therefore demonstrated good dissolution property (dissolution time, <15s), whereas it exhibited poor to very poor flowability. Conversely, MSP produced by VDD was crystalline with free-flowing flow characteristics and satisfactory dissolution (dissolution time, within 30s). Four maple products such as maple bark extracts as functional food agents, freezedried instant-like maple sugar powders, and polyphenols-enriched maple sugar powders have been designed and produced through the research project of this thesis. The results of this project may prove to be useful for the maple industries to mitigate the problems of the bark residues accumulation and of the low quality maple syrup surplus. This approach will also permit the industries to align with the concept of ‘circular economy’ in the future.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||2 August 2019|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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