Mécanismes moléculaires impliqués dans l'expression et les effets de la 5-lipoxygénase et ses métabolites
|Authors:||Poirier, Samuel J.|
|Advisor:||Flamand, Nicolas; Surette, Marc E.|
|Abstract:||Inflammation is an important process where the immune system responds to an irritant. Specifically, inflammation helps defend the human body against pathogens. Chronic and uncontrolled inflammation, however, can lead to pathologies such as atherosclerosis, asthma, and cancer. The 5-lipoxygenase enzyme (5-LO), which is encoded by the ALOX5 gene, is mostly expressed by leukocytes and plays a central role in the immune reaction. It is the first committed enzyme for the biosynthesis of leukotrienes from arachidonic acid. The biological activity of leukotrienes is diverse, but mainly LTB4 induces phagocyte chemotaxis and the release of anti-microbial effectors, whereas the cysteinyl leukotrienes (LTC4, LTD4 and LTE4) increase bronchoconstriction and vascular permeability. This thesis focuses 1) on the biological effects of LTB4 metabolites on neutrophil functions and 2) on the mechanisms by which 5-lipoxygenase expression is regulated in monocytes in the context of host defense and disease. Specifically, LTB4 is rapidly degraded into 20-OH- and 20-COOH-LTB4 by human neutrophils. Although these metabolites bind to the BLT1 receptor with high affinity, they are generally considered inactive because they are considerably less capable of activating leukocytes in comparison to LTB4. Therefore, the first objective of this thesis was to evaluate the biological effects of the LTB4 metabolites, 20-OH- and 20- COOH-LTB4, on human neutrophil functions like migration, leukotriene biosynthesis, and production of antimicrobial effectors. Furthermore, previous studies found that the differentiation of myeloid cells with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and TGF-β is associated with a strong increase in 5-LO expression. Since the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) also induced cell maturation resulting increased CD14 expression, we hypothesized that LPS may modulate 5-LO expression in monocytic cell lines. In consequence, our second objective was to investigate the impact of LPS on 5-LO expression and LT biosynthesis. Importantly, this study was the first to report an agonist-dependent induction of ALOX5 promoter transactivation. Lastly, an association between dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and naturally occurring mutations in the ALOX5 promoter has been linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Unfortunately, prior studies using reporter gene assays opted for both non-humans or 5-LO-negative cell models to study the transcriptional regulation of 5-LO expression in relations to the promoter polymorphisms. Therefore, by using our previously validated gene reporter model in human monocytic cells, the third objective of my thesis was to compare the reporter construct activity of distinct ALOX5 promoter variants in the presence or absence of PUFA supplementation in Mono Mac 6 cells. In conclusion, we sought to better understand the mechanisms involved in the transcriptional regulation of 5-LO expression and in the neutrophil response to LTB4 metabolites. Consequently, our data increases the comprehension of the crucial role of 5-LO and its products on host defense and diseases.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||2 August 2019|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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