Caractérisation de l'athérosclérose carotidienne par imagerie par résonance magnétique : interactions complexes avec les marqueurs/médiateurs cardiométaboliques

Authors: LeBlanc, Stéphanie
Advisor: Larose, ÉricDesprés, Jean-Pierre
Abstract: Coronary artery disease is one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide, myocardial infarction being the most common clinical manifestation. More than 80% of myocardial infarctions are caused by an occlusive thrombus in a coronary artery, resulting from the destabilization of an atherosclerotic plaque. Although the presence of traditional risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and smoking increases the risk of coronary artery disease, more than 85% of myocardial infarction events remain unexplained by those risk factors. Atherosclerosis is characterized by an accumulation of calcium and fibrous tissue as well as necrotic and lipids debris, aggregated in a lipid-rich necrotic core (LRNC) within the artery wall. LRNC is a major determinant of atherosclerosis vulnerability, being associated with the occurrence of coronary events. Atherogenic lipoproteins are closely involved in the LRNC development, and are mediated through several mechanisms, but especially by visceral adiposity. Physical activity reduces the amount of visceral fat and the level of atherogenic lipoproteins, and may also slow atherosclerosis progression. However, the relationship between atherosclerosis characteristics and those cardiometabolic markers remains to be clarified. Imaging of coronary arteries requires invasive techniques, which are difficult to apply in otherwise healthy individuals. The carotid artery is easily accessible to magnetic resonance imaging, which is non-invasive, and may be used to study those relationships. The general objectives of this thesis are to determine whether volumetric measurements of carotid atherosclerosis burden and tissue features are associated with coronary risk, and if they are related to visceral adiposity, atherogenic lipoproteins and physical activity. First, we clarified the relationship between carotid and coronary atherosclerosis, and demonstrated that volumetric measurements of carotid atherosclerosis were good indicators of the clinical coronary risk. Then, we established that clinical measurements of visceral abdominal adiposity and atherogenic lipoproteins may improve risk evaluations by identifying individuals with high-risk atherosclerosis. We also demonstrated that physical inactivity and visceral abdominal adiposity progression are associated with the progression of the LRNC in the carotid artery. Finally, we observed that the improvement of cardiorespiratory fitness, generated by regular physical activity, is inversely associated with the change of LRNC proportion in the carotid artery. Our work therefore shows that physical inactivity and visceral abdominal adiposity are associated with the progression of high-risk atherosclerosis features, offering promising avenues to reduce the incidence of coronary artery disease.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2019
Open Access Date: 2 August 2019
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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