L'effet d'une consommation augmentée de produits laitiers sur l'homéostasie du glucose et les profils métabolomiques chez des sujets hyperinsulinémiques

Authors: O'Connor, Sarah
Advisor: Rudkowska, Iwona
Abstract: Observational evidences suggest an association between dairy product intake and a reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes. However, results from clinical studies remain controversial, notably due to large interindividual variability in response to dairy products. Further, clinical studies using objective dietary biomarkers to assess dietary intake are missing. Serum metabolite analysis using metabolomics could be a novel strategy to identify new biomarkers of dairy product intake and thus, improving accuracy of nutritional evaluations in clinical studies. The main objective of this research was to observe the effects of increased dairy product intake on type 2 diabetes related risk factors such as glycemic and insulinemic parameters, along with metabolomic profiles in hyperinsulinemic subjects. Interindividual variability in response to dairy products was also assessed as a specific objective. Results from a cross-over randomized controlled trial undertaken among 27 hyperinsulinemic adults suggest that consuming 4 servings or more of dairy products daily for 6 weeks does not affect glycemic and insulinemic parameters compared to a standard intake of dairy products (2 servings or less per day). Yet, increasing dairy intake to 4 servings or more per day increased insulin resistance compared with baseline values, without affecting insulin secretion of β-cells function. However, large inter-individual variability in response to dairy products was denoted for insulin resistance, suggesting that higher intake of dairy products might be unfavorable or beneficial depending on the individual. Further, consuming 4 servings or more of dairy products daily affected serum metabolomic profiles distinctly from consuming ≤2 servings per day, suggesting specific metabolite signature to increased dairy product intake. Additional long-term trials studying interindividual variability and using objective biomarkers of dairy intake are required to identify which individuals may really benefit from increasing dairy intake to prevent type 2 diabetes.
Document Type: Mémoire de maîtrise
Issue Date: 2019
Open Access Date: 1 August 2019
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/35722
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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