Contribution à la réduction de l'impact environnemental du perméat de lactosérum via sa valorisation intégrale par un procédé d'électro-activation en solution : preuve du concept et analyse de la qualité du produit
|Abstract:||The aim of the present thesis was the development of a new process in view to the integral valorization of whey permeate (WP) which have a serious negative environmental impact due to it high biochemical and chemical oxygen demand (BOD, CDO) (COD). For this, WP was valorized through in situ isomerisation of it lactose into the prebiotic lactulose using electro-activation technology as a new approach without any upstream and/or downstream fractionation. Firstly, the best conditions of the isomerisation of lactose into lactulose using WP as a cheap lactose source were determined. The effect of electric current intensity and salt (CaCl2, KCl and MgCl2) on the amount of lactose conversion into lactulose by using WP (6 %, wt) and pure lactose (5 %, wt) solutions was studied. Lactose was converted into lactulose at a level of 35.1% when KCl, current intensity of 330 mA during 21 min of electro-activation were applied to WP; and 38.66% when KCl, current intensity of 330 mA during 14 min were applied to lactose solution. The use of WP in both the central and cathodic compartments without addition of salt yielded 39.78% lactulose after 35 min of electro-activation at 330 mA. Scanning electron microscopy and calculation of the global electrical resistance of the reactor did not reveal any membrane fouling. Secondly, the cathodic electro-activated solutions obtained with a high lactulose yield and induced Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were submitted to spray drying at three temperatures (160, 180 and 200 °C) and their antioxidant activity (AA) was evaluated. For this purpose, the AA was evaluated by the DPPH scavenging activity, reducing power, ABTS•+ Radical scavenging assay and iron chelating capacity. The effect of the drying temperature on the AA of the EAWP was also evaluated. The obtained data demonstrated that electro-activation significantly (P < 0.001) enhanced the AA of WP and that this AA was mainly due to the intermediate MRPs, as shown by the highest absorbance at 294 nm. Moreover, the results showed that the drying temperature significantly influenced the AA of EAWP. Finally, the effect of the obtained EAWP powder (EAWPP) concentration (0%, 2%, 4% and 6%, wt/wt) on lipid oxidation and color stability of chilled minced beef stored at 4°C for 17 days was investigated. The minced beef lipid oxidation and appearance were evaluated through measurement of primary (acid value (AV) and peroxide values (PV)) and secondary oxidation products (thiobarbutiric acid reactive substances, TBARS), together with measurement of color in the CIELAB system at 0, 1, 2, 3, 10 and 17 days. Results demonstrate that the EAWPP act as an effective antioxidant on lipid meat. The AV, PV and TBARS analysis demonstrate that the chilled minced beef added with the EAWPP inhibited the lipid oxidation compared to the control. This finding was also confirmed by the fatty acid analysis of the lipid fraction. In addition, the color stability was saved when EAWPP was added. In conclusion, the proposed process can, on one hand, solve the environmental problem of WP by transforming it from a pollutant by product into a high value added ingredient having prebiotic and antioxidant properties and, on the other hand, it constitutes a possible alternative to the chemical synthesis of lactulose thus reducing its negative environmental impact.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||1 August 2019|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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