L'interaction de SAM68 avec U1 snRNP régule l'épissage alternatif
|Authors:||Subramania Gangadhara, Suryasree|
|Abstract:||Global transcriptome profiling of human genes have led to the estimation that 95% of genes undergo alternative splicing. Alternative splicing expands the diversity of our genome and modulates it by cross-regulatory mechanisms. Major small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) namely U1, U2, U4, U6 and U5 catalyzes intron excision in a concerted manner. Some of the predominant splicing patterns by which alternative splicing expands genome diversity includes include exon skipping, mutually exclusive exons, alternative 5´splice site and alternative 3´splice site selection. RNA binding proteins play a major role in the regulation of alternative splicing by modulating snRNP recruitment and they do so by binding directly to pre-mRNA sequences called splicing enhancers or silencers that are located in exons and/or introns. A current goal in the splicing field is to establish a ‘splicing code’ for each RBP, whereby its activity, as in splicing activation or repression can be predicted based on its binding region relative to splice sites. Recent genome wide applications such as microarray and RNA-Seq have shed light on the often overlooked splicing patterns such as intronic polyadenylation and intron retention. The RNA binding protein, SAM68, modulates the alternative splicing of mTor – that encodes mTOR, the master regulator of cell growth and homeostasis. SAM68 promotes normal intron 5 splicing of mTor. Pre-adipocytes of Sam68 deficient mice showed differentiation defects and decreased commitment to adipocyte lineage. These mice were lean and unresponsive to dietary induced obesity. Exon-wide microarray analysis of white adipose tissue from Sam68-null mice identified upregulation of a truncated isoform of mTor; mTori5 , that transcriptionally terminates within intron 5 due to lack of splicing at the upstream 5´splice sites. However, the mechanism by which SAM68 regulates splicing events, particularly in the context of splice site recognition, has not been characterized till date. In this doctoral thesis, I describe an in-depth study on the role of SAM68 and the intronic enhancer regions in mTor intron 5 in the recognition of its upstream 5´splice site. My results uncover a novel role of SAM68 in modulating U1 snRNP recruitment at 5´splice sites. I describe the biochemical characterization of SAM68 interaction with U1A, the core component of U1 snRNP and the role of SAM68 tyrosine phosphorylation in modulating this interaction. I also describe how SAM68 by its interaction with U1 snRNP plays a crucial role in masking cryptic intronic polyadenylation signals in a subset of genes. Collectively, this study will contribute to advanced understanding of intronic elements and the role of SAM68 in affecting crucial splicing decisions.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||1 August 2019|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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