Fabrication d'extraits bioactifs bénéfiques pour la santé et riches en glucoraphanine à partir de rejets industriels de Brassica oleracea (brocoli) en utilisant la technologie verte
|Advisor:||Angers, Paul; Desjardins, Yves|
|Abstract:||Broccoli is an excellent source of nutraceutical compounds with many health effects such as anticancerous, anti-diabetic, antioxidant and anti-microbial properties. Glucosinolates, polyphenols, vitamins, minerals, dietary fibers are the most important molecules present in broccoli. The global annual production of broccoli is 21 million tons. It is estimated that 35-40% of the horticultural crops are lost due to inadequate agricultural practices, generating huge quantities of agro-waste. These lost crops, could be used as raw materials for the extraction and purification of bioactive ingredients for the nutraceutical and food industry. The main objective of this project was to develop an economical and environmental friendly technique for the fabrication of an extract rich in glucoraphanin from broccoli industrial discards, providing an alternative route for its valorization. This work predominantly focuses on the identification, characterization and quantification of glucosinolates and polyphenols present in 10 rejected lots of broccoli seeds and broccoli industrial residues such as florets, stalks and the mixture of florets and stalks. Additionally, the glucoraphanin extraction process was optimized using green solvents such as ethanol and water. Further, the glucoraphanin from crude broccoli extracts were purified using ion exchange resins by Response Surface Methodology, based on Box-Behnken Design (BBD) and Principle component analysis. Finally, pilot experiments were performed using the optimized parameters to verify their industrial applicability. The simultaneous characterization and quantification by UPLC MS/MS indicated the presence of 12 glucosinolates (predominantly glucoraphanin) and 5 polyphenols in broccoli by-products. The glucosinolates content varied from 0.2 to 2% dry weight (DW), whereas, the polyphenols were less than 0.02% DW. The relative abundance of glucoraphanin in broccoli by-products makes it a promising starting material for the fabrication of functional food supplements. Further, an eco-friendly, solvent based glucoraphanin extraction process was optimized for broccoli seeds and florets by-products. A single batch magnetically stirred extractor was found to maximize glucoraphanin extractability. The optimized extraction parameters were 50% and 70% aqueous ethanol extracted for 60 and 30 minutes at 60 and 23°C for seeds and florets by-products, respectively, using a feed to solvent ratio of 1:20. The optimized green process provided a glucoraphanin yield of 55.5 g/Kg DW seeds and 4.3 g/kg DW florets by-products. The green process developed in this study provided 37 and 81 times more glucoraphanin extractability than the standardized methanol based analytical technique. Finally, an environmental friendly and industrially feasible glucoraphanin purification process was developed using ion exchange resins by response surface approach for broccoli seeds and florets by-products. A 27 run, 3 level BBD, were proposed for cationic and anionic resins in series, to maximize the process responses. Glucoraphanin purification from broccoli seeds extract using cationic resin provided a maximal recovery of 94% and purity of 14% using 1:5 of feed to resin ratio for 30 min, at 80 rpm agitation speed and eluting solvent concentration of 100% water. For anionic resin, the experimental variables of 1:5, 140 min, 160 rpm and 7% ammonium hydroxide in 70% ethanol provided a process efficiency of 72% and a purity of 37%. Whereas, for broccoli florets industrial discards, the optimized process parameters for the purification of glucoraphanin were a feed to resin ratio of 1:1.87, contact time of 30 min, agitation speed of 80 rpm and eluting solvent of 100% water. Subsequent purification of the cationic extract using the anionic resin was performed using the optimized experimental parameters of feed to resin ratio of 1:1.3 for 170 min at 140 rpm and eluted using 7% ammonium hydroxide in 70% ethanol, providing a recovery of 78% and purity of 5%. Finally, the laboratory scale optimized extraction and purification process parameters was extrapolated onto the pilot scale for the fabrication of powdered extracts, indicated that the optimized process was highly efficient in recovering glucoraphanin with high purity even on large scale operation. Hence, the present study developed an efficient, industrially viable green process, for the fabrication of extracts from broccoli industrial discards. The optimized process provided an economically feasible alternative route for the valorization of the lost crop bringing us closer to food security and environmental sustainability.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||11 July 2019|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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