Effet de l'environnement lumineux sur les relations hôtes/parasitoïdes : cas de la guêpe parasitoïde Aphidius ervi et de son hôte principal le puceron du pois Acyrthosiphon pisum
|Advisor:||Cloutier, Conrad; Galstian, Tigran|
|Abstract:||In nature, organisms must adapt to a changing light environment (day / night alternation, cloud cover, habitat, season, etc.). The increasing use of specific wavelengths involving light emitting diodes (LEDs) in greenhouses overcomes the lack of light during winter months, helping photosynthesis or vegetative growth of crops. However, changing light environment as well as photoperiod can also directly or indirectly modify the activity of beneficial insects and plant-related pests. In my study, we investigated how a parasitoid wasp deals with variations in the light environment and how important color vision is in locating and recognizing its host. Our study model focused on the parasitoid wasp Aphidius ervi which mainly attacks the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. Pea aphids have a color polymorphism and appear within a same population under pink morphs and green morphs. Using a design based on LEDs of 5 different wavelengths (361, 450, 500-600, 626 and 660 nm), we have created different artificial light spectra that parasitoids and their hosts can encounter in natural environment such as leaf-shade or direct sunlight. This design allowed us to study the behavior of insects in a changing light environment that is totally controllable in light intensity and spectral composition, in a context of locomotor activity and parasitism. Overall, the results suggest that the probability of aphids walking depended on the interaction between the light environment, the stage of development, and clonal variation. We have shown that the probability of parasitoids walking decreased with increasing wavelengths, and that males were more active than females under all monochromatic light conditions tested. Although the amount of light reflected from the pink morphs was about half that of the green morphs in the cyan-green components, we found that both host colors were recognized and attacked under all light conditions tested, even red light (660 nm). Finally, by applying 4 ratios of red (R): blue (B) LEDs used to extend the photoperiod inside a growth chamber, we have shown that the photophase elongation (from 8h to 16h of light/day) increased the daily parasitic activity of the wasp and its oviposition behavior. Finally, the newly emerged parasitoid adults were composed of 80% males in light 100R: 0B against 50% under the ratio 25R: 75B. This study indicates that A. ervi remains a good biological control agent under different light environments. This study is also the first to show that the R: B light ratio has an impact on the decision-making of females regarding the sex of their offspring. We believe that the use of red light alone to extend the photophase may have a negative effect on the population dynamics of these parasitoids because of its adverse impact on sex ratio by favoring males, and thus a negative effect on control of aphid populations in confined environment.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||10 July 2019|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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