Analyse comparative de la réponse cardiométabolique à une supplémentation en acide eicosapentaénoïque et docosahexaénoïque

Authors: Allaire, Janie
Advisor: Couture, PatrickLamarche, Benoît
Abstract: Most clinical trials to date have used the two main types of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn3-PUFAs), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n3) in various forms and proportions. While LCn3-PUFA consumption tends to exert a cardioprotective effect in epidemiological studies, most clinical studies have shown a neutral effect of LCn3-PUFA supplementation on the risk of cardiovascular events and mortality. Thus, the use of LCn3-PUFA to prevent cardiovascular events remains controversial. The inconsistent effect of LCn3-PUFAs on cardiovascular events might be because EPA and DHA have distinct effects on cardiovascular risk. The proportion of EPA and DHA contained in supplements may influence the effects of LCn3-PUFA supplements. Moreover, inter-individual variability in the plasma triglyceride response to LCn3-PUFA supplementation has been fairly well documented in several clinical studies, suggesting that some but not all individuals benefit from DHA and EPA supplementation. The general objective of this thesis was to compare the individual effect of EPA and DHA on cardiometabolic risk. Specifically, we compared the effect of EPA and DHA on blood lipids, markers of inflammation, lipids metabolism, gene expression of lipid metabolism, the inter- and intra-individual variability of triglyceride and lowdensity lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) response as well as the determinants of the response. A randomized controlled crossover and double-blind trial was conducted at the Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods. A total of 154 participants were randomized to difference sequences of three experimental phases of 10 weeks and separated with 9-week washouts. Each participant was supplemented with 2,7 g per day of EPA, 2,7 g per day of DHA and 3 g per day of corn oil as the control. The results of this study have shown that EPA and DHA exert differential effects on blood lipids, on some inflammation markers, on the Omega-3 Index, on the LDLapolipoproptein B100 metabolism and on LDL particle size. An important inter- and intra-individual variability in the triglyceride and the LDL-C response to EPA and DHA has also been observed. Altogether, these observations support the hypothesis that EPA and DHA may exert differential effects on the risk of cardiovascular events. Moreover, data on the variability in the triglyceride and LDL-C response suggest that some but not all individuals may benefit from DHA and EPA supplementation in terms of cardiovascular prevention.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2019
Open Access Date: 25 June 2019
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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