Extraction et prétraitement de fibres naturelles de lin par une approche enzymatique combinée au CO2 supercritique
|Authors:||Nlandu, Hervé Mayamba|
|Advisor:||Belkacemi, Khaled; Hamoudi, Safia; Elkoun, S.|
|Abstract:||The main goal of this research was to set up an environmentally friendly process for the pretreatment of natural flax fibres in view to produce lignocellulosic nanofibers and modify their surface for their use as compatible fillers in polymer composites. To achieve this main objective, lignocellulosic nanosized flax fibres were prepared using an environmentally friendly process based on a combination of supercritical carbon dioxide pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis conditions. Supercritical CO2 pretreatment aimed to overcome the recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass and to provide access to hydrolytic enzymes. It was shown that the supercritical CO2 pretreatment of raw flax fibers helped to deconstruct biomass, avoiding its fractionation and increased access to hydrolytic enzymes such as cellulase, xylanase, pectinase and viscozyme leading to extraction of lignocellulosic fibres having nanometric dimensions. These extracted lignocellulosic nanofibres as well as the solid residues of the hydrolysis are hydrophilic in nature because of the attraction / interaction between the hydroxyl groups of the fibrous components and water molecules. The hydrophilic nature of these lignocellulosic nanofibers often results in poor compatibility with hydrophobic polymeric matrices. Surface modification is therefore necessary to make them more hydrophobic and compatible with the hydrophobic matrices. Laccase mediated grafting of natural phenolic compounds, i.e. guaiacol and syringaldehyde, onto lignocellulosic fiber was achieved, thus making lignocellulosic nanofibers and hydrolysis solids residues more hydrophobic and compatible with hydrophobic matrices. No significant changes in the chemical composition of flax fibres were observed after pretreatment. This was confirmedby FTIR analysis, which also demonstrated laccase-induced grafting of guaiacol and syringaldehyde onto lignocellulosic nanofibers and solid residues hydrolysis surfaces. Moreover, X-ray diffraction revealed that crystallinity increased for supercritical CO2 pretreated fibres as well asenzymatically produced lignocellulosic nanofibers. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the physical damages in the form of holes, cracks and erosions onto the surface of supercritical CO2 pretreated flax fibres, while transmission electron microscopy evidencedthe production of filament-shaped nanosized fibrils with a diameter of 5-10 nm and several micrometers length. Finally, bio-grafted fibers showed better thermal stability and hydrophobicity if compared to untreated raw analogues.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||25 June 2019|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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