La thermorégulation comme cible thérapeutique pour la maladie d'Alzheimer

Authors: Tournissac, Marine
Advisor: Calon, Frédéric
Abstract: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by a progressive loss of memory. The number of people affected by the disease is constantly in creasing, but there is currently no curefor AD. Aging, the main risk factor for AD, is also associated with a thermoregulatory deficit. Previous animal studies have shown that hypothermia in creases the phosphorylation of the protein tau, one of the main neuropathological markers of AD. The transgenic triple mouse (3xTg-AD), a mouse model of AD neuropathology, develops thermoregulatory deficits along with the progression of the neuropathology. Acute cold exposure exacerbates tau hyperphosphorylation in the brain of 3xTg-AD mice, while exposing them to a thermoneutral environment (28°C) alleviates their memory deficits and amyloid pathology. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is the main site of thermogenesisin mammals. The stimulation of its activity, by cold exposures or the administration of β3 adrenergic receptor agonists (β3AR), has been shown to improve peripheral metabolic determinants. Since metabolic diseases are important risk factors for AD, and thermoregulatory deficits mayworsen AD, we hypothesized that BAT stimulation could be beneficial in AD by correcting both thermoregulatory deficits and metabolic disorders. The aim of this thesis was to determine whether the stimulation of BAT thermogenesis reduces neuropathology and behavioral deficits in a mouse model of AD, the 3xTg-AD mouse. First, we showed that advanced age potentiates tau phosphorylation induced by acute cold exposure. Secondly, we observedthat repeated short cold exposures increased the thermogenesis capacity of BAT and reduced glucose intolerance in aged 3xTg-AD mice. Better thermoregulation provided protection against tau phosphorylation induced by an acute cold exposure. In addition, we reported a negative correlation between fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) levels and tau phosphorylation in the hippocampus, suggesting that this BAT-secreted hormone is involved in neuroprotection against acute cold exposure. Finally, we investigated the effect of a β3AR agonist on the neuropathology and memory of old 3xTg-AD mice. This pharmacological approach improved glucose tolerance and increased BAT thermogenes is in 16-month-old 3xTg-AD and NonTg mice. The treatment reversed the recognition memory deficiency and decreased the ratio of insoluble Aβ42/Aβ40 peptides in the hippocampus of transgenic mice, without modulating tauphosphorylation. These results show that interventions aiming at stimulating thermogenes is can reduce metabolic disorders and modulate neuropathology and behavioral deficits of AD in a mousemodel. Thus, our results high light thermoregulation as a novel therapeutic target for this disease.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2019
Open Access Date: 25 June 2019
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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