Développement par le procédé d'extrusion-gonflage de films polymères cellulaires à base de polyéthylène pour des applications piézoélectriques
|Advisor:||Rodrigue, Denis; Mighri, Frej|
|Abstract:||This doctoral thesis presents a contribution on the fabrication of cellular polymer films. These materials have recently experienced a great interest at academic and industrial levels thanks to their interesting properties combining the advantages of both polymers and foams, in particular their potential for piezoelectric applications. In fact, after charging by an appropriate method (corona discharge), cellular polymers can provide high electrical/mechanical energy conversion to be used as sensors or actuators. Firstly, a method to produce polyethylene (PE) cellular films using extrusion film-blowing was developed. This process allowed to impose biaxial stretching on the samples while foaming, which is believed to enhance the piezoelectric activity of the samples. Several compromises were made to improve the foaming quality. This optimization was mainly based on a literature review and direct observations during preliminary trials. Morphological properties were presented and discussed in terms of processing parameters, namely the temperature profile, screw rotational speed, feeding rate, take-up ratio (TUR), blow-up ratio (BUR), as well as the matrix composition. These parameters were optimized to produce a homogeneous cellular structure with defined morphologies and a well-developed eye-like cellular structure, which is important to decrease the elastic stiffness in the thickness direction and to provide more surface for charge capturing via cell deformation, thus improving the piezoelectric coefficient d₃₃. Then, pressure/temperature treatments were applied to further control the cellular morphology of the films and optimize the mechanical properties and internal specific surface area of the cellular structure.The next step was the electric charging by corona discharge producing cellular films with piezoelectric activity. Further improvement was obtained by optimizing the gas used (nitrogen) and its pressure (15 psi) combined with processing conditions such as the charging voltage and the needle-sample distance. Finally, thermal (annealing) and chemical (phosphoric acid) treatments have been proposed to further control the microstructure of these films and to provide good time and thermal stability. Overall, the chemical treatment was found to be the most efficient. Following these steps, an optimized sample with a density of 450 kg/m³, a thickness of 162 μm, a longitudinal cell aspect ratio (AR-L) of 7.0 and a transversal cell aspect ratio (AR-T) of 4.1 was developed. The piezoelectric properties reported are very high (even compared to PP which is the most used polyolefin in this field) with an initial d₃₃ of 1315 pC/N stabilizing after 50 days at 792 pC/N and a good thermal stability since the films remained charged with good piezoelectric coefficients (280 pC/N) up to 80°C. The values were further improved when a three-layered reverse charging method was appliedgiving an initial d₃₃ of 3270 pC/N, a stabilized d₃₃ of 1580pC/N after 50 days and a value of 641 pC/N at 80°C. These ferroelectret PE films with important piezoelectric properties can now be exploited for the large-scale production of electret-based sensors and transducers.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||25 June 2019|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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