Caractérisation des mécanismes moléculaires à potentiel thérapeutique dans la progression métastatique du mélanome uvéal

Authors: Weidmann, Cindy
Advisor: Landreville, Solange
Abstract: Uveal melanoma (UM) originates from the abnormal transformation of uveal melanocytes and is the most common intraocular tumor in adults. More than 40% of patients do not experience pain or visual disturbances during the development of their ocular tumor, which explains the late detection of this cancer in nearly half of the cases, and the presence of liver metastases at the initial diagnosis. A meta-analysis highlighted the ineffectiveness of available therapies given the limited number of phase III clinical studies completed in the past 30 years to treat metastatic UM. The general objective of my PhD project was to characterize molecular mechanisms with therapeutic potential in the metastatic progression of UM that could be targeted to treat patients with poor prognosis. My first objective was to characterize the effects of the pharmacological repression of the serotonin 2B receptor (HTR2B) in metastatic UM cells. We demonstrated that the selective antagonist PRX-08066 reduces both the viability of UM cells and the population in mitosis, and alters their potential for self-renewal and migration, with an interindividual variability in sensitivity. In addition, we observed a decrease in the phosphorylation of kinases of the signaling pathways classically activated by HTR2B, as well as new targets such as β-catenin, PYK2 and STAT5 in the treated cells. My second objective was to characterize the DNA hydroxymethylation profile (5-hmC) during UM progression. We have shown a reduction in the overall level of 5-hmC in UM cell lines compared to choroid and uveal melanocytes. Furthermore, our analyzes revealed a decrease in the expression of the IDH1 enzyme in UM cells and only one UM cell line showed a mutation in this gene. My third objective was to test different levels of oxygen (3% vs 21% O2) for the in vitroculture of melanocytic lines. We showed that the morphology of melanocytes and their pigmentation are slightly changed when exposed to 3% O2compared to UM cells. Moreover, their doubling time was significantly faster under these conditions. The gene profiling of choroidal melanocytes did not reveal a long list of significantly deregulated transcripts between both oxygen concentrations : only the lactate transporter MCT4 was significantly deregulated in all donors at 3% O2. My doctoral work enabled the advancement of knowledge on the HTR2B metastasis promoter from the prognostic molecular signature, DNA hydroxymethylation and hypoxia in UM, which will contribute to the development of an adjuvant or epigenetic therapy to improve patient survival.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2017
Open Access Date: 30 May 2019
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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