Les yeux ont des oreilles : examen de la pupillométrie en tant qu'indice psychophysiologique de la capture attentionnelle auditive

Authors: Marois, Alexandre
Advisor: Vachon, François
Abstract: The presence of task-irrelevant sound is known to impede cognitive functioning. More precisely, presenting a sound that deviates from the auditory background has been shown to disrupt performance on an ongoing task. Several studies regarding performance disruption by deviant sounds showed that this effect originates from the reorientation of attention triggered when the organism has detected the deviant sound. Such attentional capture (or orientation response) also elicits many physiological responses related to one’s state of alertness. These physiological responses, under certain conditions, are considered as psychophysiological indices of auditory attentional capture, permitting to show that attention has been reoriented from an ongoing task toward the deviant auditory stimulus. Recent work suggested a relationship between these indices and the pupillary dilation response, that is a rapid increase in the pupil size. A few studies have attempted to assess whether the pupillary dilation response could respect the criteria for an index to be considered as a proxy for attentional capture; yet, results of these studies either lack consistency or are incomplete. Hence, the current thesis proposes a systematic assessment of using the pupillary dilation response as a psychophysiological proxy for the auditory attentional capture. Results of the first study suggest that the pupillary dilation response respects criteria of a valid auditory attentional capture index, thus supporting the validity of this index. Study 2 shows that this index can be used in contexts in which participants are exposed to irrelevant deviant sound while concurrently performing a task inducing luminance changes or ocular movements, both influencing the pupil size. These experiments hence supported the usability of this index. The last study allows establishing the utility of this proxy since it can be used to dissociate the origin of two different auditory distraction phenomena. Overall, results of the current thesis reveal that the pupillary dilation response is a psychophysiological index that could be added to several auditory distraction paradigms or in applied contexts in which the occurrence of attention reorientation toward a sound may be relevant to assess.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2019
Open Access Date: 28 May 2019
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/35033
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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