Développement d'un modèle de peau reconstruite par génie tissulaire à partir de cellules diabétiques pour l'étude des plaies chroniques cutanées

Authors: De Serres-Bérard, Thiéry
Advisor: Berthod, François
Abstract: Skin wound healing is severely compromised in patients with diabetes and can lead to ulcer formation requiring lower limb amputation. Previous studies using cells derived from diabetic patients have been mostly conducted in two-dimensional monolayer cultures, which do not reproduce at all the physiology or the structure of the skin and thus limit the discovery of effective treatments. We propose that a three-dimensional reconstructed skin model made with diabetic cells could be useful to better understand the mechanisms underlying diabetic foot ulcer. Our aim was to asses the efficiency of diabetic reconstructed skin in angiogenesis and reepithelialization, which are two crucial processes of wound healing that are impaired by diabetes. We have extracted and cultured fibroblasts, keratinocytes and microvascular endothelial cells from skin biopsies taken on the amputated limb of diabetic patients. The cells were seeded on a biomaterial made of chitosan and collagen, which allowed the endothelial cells to form a capillary network and the keratinocytes to form a stratified epidermis. We have shown that coculture of healthy endothelial cells with diabetic fibroblasts in the model led to the formation of a less extensive vascular network compared to culture with healthy fibroblasts. Additionally, in diabetic reconstructed skins, keratinocytes formed a thinner epidermis with an altered histological aspect compared to healthy reconstructed skins. Following the induction of a wound in our model, diabetic keratinocytes were inefficient in achieving reepithelialization. We have developed the first endothelialized diabetic reconstructed skin, which features important characteristics found in diabetic wounds like a deficiency in the angiogenesis and reepithelialisation process. Therefore, this model could be a powerful tool to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms leading to chronic wounds and act as a platform to screen therapies to enhance wound healing.
Document Type: Mémoire de maîtrise
Issue Date: 2019
Open Access Date: 27 May 2019
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/35005
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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