Impact de l'ajout de nouveaux vaccins, des retards vaccinaux et des méthodes de collecte de l'information vaccinale sur l'estimation de la couverture vaccinale à 24 mois.

Authors: Kiely, Marilou
Advisor: De Serres, GastonTalbot, Denis
Abstract: The impact of vaccination programs depends upon the proportion of the target population who have received the recommended vaccines, i.e. vaccination coverage. In Quebec (Canada), during the last ten years, many new vaccines were added in the vaccination schedule for children under 24 months of age and this may have decreased the vaccination coverage and increased vaccine delays. Vaccine delay at one visit had an impact of on-time administration of subsequent doses. Many studies had shown that vaccine delays at first vaccines on the vaccination status, but there are scarce data regarding the impact of vaccine delays at other visits. Since 2006, vaccination coverage surveys are conducted every two years among children aged 1 and 2 years of age. These studies included up to four attemps to contact eligible individuals and data from vaccine booklets were supplemented by data from vaccine providers for children with missing doses. We used data collected from 2006 to 2016 to evaluate the impact of the addition of new vaccines in the early childhood schedule, the impact of vaccine delays and the impact of methods used to collect vaccination information. Analyses were realised with the 7183 children born in Québec; including 3508 children from the 2-year cohort. We observed that vaccination coverage by 24 months did not decrease with the addition of new vaccines for antigens included in the schedule since 2006 and was in fact higher in 2014 and 2016. In 2016, vaccination coverage for antigens in the schedule since 2006 was of 88.3% and of 78.2% including all recommended antigens. The vaccination coverage for new antigens increased rapidly after their introduction but remained lower than vaccination coverage for antigens in the schedule since 2006. We observed that the prevalence of vaccine delays increased by vaccination visits at 2, 4, 6 and 12 months and that the impact of vaccine delays on incomplete vaccination status by 24 months was important for delays after the 2-month visit. Among children with an incomplete vaccination status by 24 months, 16.1% were attributable with a first vaccine delay (2 mois), 10.6% at 4 months, 14.0% at 6 months and 31.8% at 12 months. However, about 75% of children with a vaccine delay at 2 months also had vaccine delays at later visits. Factors associated with an incomplete vaccination status by 24 months and with vaccine delays were assessed to identify more vulnerable populations who may required a particular follow-up. Without validation among vaccine providers in our study, the vaccination coverage by 24 months would have been underestimated from 5.5% to 23.7 depending on the survey year. We have compared vaccination coverage by 24 months between each contacts among potential respondents. We observed that the proportion fully vaccinated by 24 months of age was significantly 7.8% higher in children whose parents responded to the first rather than the third contact, but it was only 2.1% higher when comparing respondents to contact 1 and all respondents. Conducting multiple contact attempts increased the overall response rate, but had limited impact on the validity of estimates. To conclude, vaccination coverage studies are essential to evaluate the impact of vaccination programs and trends over the years. Monitoring of vaccine delays provide more information regarding the susceptibility of the population. Intervention to improve timeliness should address delays at each visit and not only focus on the first visit. In addition, validation of vaccination data among other sources is necessary to limit the presence of information bias in vaccination coverage studies, but may be restricted to children incompletely vaccinated. To better evaluate the benefit of multiple contacts it would be useful for future similar vaccination surveys to present the coverage obtained from respondants to each contact.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2019
Open Access Date: 23 May 2019
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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