Potentiel de valorisation d'extraits bioactifs issus de bourgeons d'érable à sucre et d'érable rouge

Authors: Meda, Naamwin-So-Bâwfu Romaric
Advisor: Poubelle, Patrice
Abstract: The residues from the activities of Canadian forest industry are estimated to be more than 20 million tons of dry matter per year. The extractives of trunk barks from these residues have been studied as a way to valorize these non- wood forest products in areas with higher added values based on their interesting biological properties for human health. However, branches of the trees removed during thinning or pruning also carry other plant tissues with chemical composition and biological properties distinct from barks. Our research hypothesis was that maples, the widespread trees with major economic value from Canadian forests, represent a source of important quantities of forest residues containing buds which could be used to produce active ingredients for food industry and healthcare (drugs, phytomedications, and nutraceuticals). Indeed, buds contain important amount of meristems, undifferentiated embryonic tissues that may be rich in some bioactive compounds that are often found only in small quantities in other plant parts. Thus, the main objective of our research project was to explore the potential areas of valorization of natural products derived from sugar and red maple buds No data dealing with the chemical composition of this plant material nor biological effects of extracts and / or molecules derived from maple buds were found in scientific literature. The extracts of maple buds (therefore obtained with not toxic and environment- respectful solvents), were analysed by qualitative approach by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) assays for screening of phytochemicals. The quantitative assays and antioxidant activity assessment were used to characterize and evaluate the best promising extract. The major phytochemicals of the latter were identified, along with the biological tests undertaken in order to measure its potential of valorization in several fields The yields of dry matter, the nature and quantity of some potential bioactive compounds and the results on antioxidant activities evaluation showed that the hot water extract of red maple buds has a real potential for development as natural antioxidant. The identification of the major phenolic compounds contained in this extract and their quantification revealed an important concentration of gallo-tannins, along with quercetin and cyanidin glycosides, determined in this study for the first time in this species. Exploration of the effects of water extract from red maple buds on human neutrophils as a first approach indicated no toxicity nor significant modification of their viability up to 100 μg / mL. However, for higher concentrations, the extract showed an ability to accelerate the programmed death of these major cells of inflammation. Further studies revealed that this activity was due to particular gallotannins. This biological property highlighted for the first time opens the field to several ways of valorization especially for the resolution of inflammatory processes in which neutrophil survival is undoubtedly linked to the development of chronic pathologies.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2018
Open Access Date: 23 May 2019
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/34941
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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