Influence du profil minéral de la ration sur la production de matière grasse du lait

Authors: Alfonso Avila, Angel Rene
Advisor: Gervais, RachelCharbonneau, Édith
Abstract: Negative energy balance typically appears in early-lactation dairy cows as a consequence of a reduction of dry matter intake, as well as of an increase in energy demand for milk production. To compensate this energy deficit, cows are fed with high-concentrate diets. However, highly fermentable carbohydrates introduced in diets can result in a decreased milk fat synthesis. Previous studies reported that addition of potassium carbonate (K2CO3) to high-concentrate diets helps to maintain milk fat, although the mechanism is yet to be established. Consequently, the objective of the current thesis was, firstly, to investigate the effects of dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD), cation source, and buffering ability of the mineral supplement on rumen biohydrogenation of fatty acids (FA) and production performance of dairy cows fed a high-concentrate diet. Secondly, this thesis aimed at evaluating the effect of K2CO3 on production performance, biohydrogenation of fatty acids, and mineral composition of milk in early-lactation dairy cows fed a high-concentrate diet with or without soybean oil (SBO), as a source of polyunsaturated fatty acid. A third objective of this thesis was to evaluate the effect of K2CO3 supplementation, in diets containing soybean oil (SBO) on rumen microbial population associated with lipid metabolism. Consequently, a first experiment was set up, where 35 early-lactation Holstein cows were used in a randomized complete block design with 33-d periods, including a 5-d pretreatment collection period used as a covariate. Five different dietary treatments were used to assess the effects of K2CO3 (control vs. K2CO3), buffering ability (K2CO3 vs. KHCO3), DCAD (K2CO3 vs. KCl), and cation type (K2CO3 vs. Na2CO3). In this experiment, and as opposed to previous studies, supplementing high-concentrate diets with K2CO3 did not increase milk or milk fat yield in early-lactation cows. Also, results suggested that increasing dietary K through the addition of K2CO3 could lead to a disequilibrium in cellular ion composition that can impair nutrient transport into and out of the mammary epithelial cells, and consequently affect milk synthesis. A second experiment was conducted where 28 ruminally fistulated Holstein cows were used in a randomized complete block design. The experiment lasted 33 d, including a 5-d pre-treatment collection period used as a covariate. Experimental treatments were arranged as a 2 × 2 factorial with 0 or 1.5% K2CO3 and with 0 or 2% SBO. Results of this experiment revealed that potential effect of K2CO3 on milk fat synthesis is dependent on the levels of dietary polyunsaturated FA. Moreover, a positive relation was established between milk Cl concentration and milk yield, suggesting that the equilibrium of this ion is linked to the efficiency of lactogenesis Finally, rumen samples were collected from the rumen of 24 cows enrolled in the second experiment (n = 6) to assess treatment effects on rumen microbial population associated with lipid metabolism. Feeding K2CO3 and SBO had distinct effects on rumen bacteria. Dietary K2CO3 stimulated the growth of Butyrivibrio hungatei, a bacterium recognized to produce trans-11-18:1 during biohydrogenation. Conversely, feeding SBO reduced the growth of Butyrivibrio/Pseudobutyrivibrio bacterium group, known to produce trans-11-18:1, of Fibrobacter succinogenes, a fibrolytic bacterium, of Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus, a bacterium involved in 18:0 production, and of Streptococcus bovis, an amylolytic bacterium. Overall, the experiments conducted and reported in this thesis provide new insights on the impact of mineral supplementation on milk performance in dairy cows.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2019
Open Access Date: 23 April 2019
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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