Modulation of the gastrointestinal tract microbiota by two direct fed microbials and their efficacy as alternatives to antibiotic growth promoter use in calf management operations

Authors: Fomenky, Bridget
Advisor: Gervais, RachelChouinard, YvanIbeagha-Awemu, Eveline
Abstract: There is interest in the use of direct-fed microbials (DFM) as substitutes for antibiotic growth promoters in farm animal production. However, little information exists on the effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus BT 1386 (LA) and Saccharomyces cereviseae boulardii CNCM I-1079 (SCB) on the modulation of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiota and innate immune responses in dairy calves. Therefore, the objectives of this thesis were to (1) investigate the effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus BT 1386 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii CNCM 1-1079 on blood cellular and biochemical/chemical constituents; (2) determine the potential mechanisms of enhanced immune response by Lactobacillus acidophilus BT 1386 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii CNCM 1-1079; (3) determine how Lactobacillus acidophilus BT 1386 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii CNCM 1-1079 modulate calf GIT microbial community composition by next-generation sequencing of the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene and (4) compare the efficacy of these two DFM with tetracycline-neomycin, an antibiotic growth promoter. Forty eight calves (2 to 7 days old) were randomly allocated to four treatments: 1) Control (CTRL) fed milk replacer (MR) and starter feed (SF); 2) CTRL supplemented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii CNCMI-1079 (SCB; 7.5 × 108 (CFU)/L MR + 3 × 109 CFU/kg SF); 3) CTRL supplemented with Lactobacillus acidophilus BT1386 (LA; 2.5 × 108 CFU/L MR + 1 × 109 CFU/kg SF); and 4) CTRL supplemented with antibiotics (ATB) chlortetracycline and neomycin (528 and 357 mg/L MR, respectively), and chlortetracycline (55 mg/kg SF). Animals were raised for 96 days following standard management procedures. Growth parameters (body weight and feed intake) of calves were recorded weekly. Four calves per treatment were euthanized on day 33 (pre-weaning) and an additional four calves per treatment on day 96 (post-weaning) to sample rumen and ileum tissues for real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and colon for histomorphology. The ileum, colon and rumen were also analyzed for viability. Furthermore, samples of digesta (colon, ileum and rumen) and mucosa (colon and ileum) for bacterial characterization by sequencing the V3-V4 region of 16S rRNA gene. Weekly feces samples were collected for viability analysis. Blood samples were also collected for isolation of neutrophils and peripheral blood mononuclear cells for oxidative burst and phagocytosis analyses by flow cytometry. Serum measurements of acute phase proteins were done by ELISA. Viable SCB were recovered throughout the GIT and in the feces pre- and post-weaning. The feces of SCB-treated calves showed a greater lactobacilli population compared with CTRL (P < 0.01) around weaning. In the pre-weaning period, the distribution of lactobacilli population differed along the digestive tract (colon > ileum content > rumen > ileum mucosa; P < 0.001). The lactobacilli population were significantly reduced in all compartments (P = 0.02) post-weaning compared to pre-weaning, except in the rumen. Crypts depth and width of the colon decreased (P < 0.01) whereas number of goblet cells containing neutral mucins tended to increase (P = 0.058) while acidic mucins increased (P < 0.05) in SCB- and ATB-treated calves compared with CTRL and v LA-treated calves. Overall, growth performances were not affected by treatment. There was improvement of both oxidative burst and phagocytosis by SCB and LA during weaning in calves. Similarly, the concentrations of acute phase proteins (C-reactive proteins and serum amyloid A proteins) were increased by SCB and LA during weaning. The DFM had less impact on the bacteria diversity but had significant impact on the abundance of the bacteria community with most changes associated to treatments occurring in the ileum. SCB and LA reduced some pathogenic bacteria genera such as Streptococcus, Tyzzerella_4 and increased some potential beneficial bacteria such as fibrobacter. Meanwhile, Rumminococcaceae UCG 005 and Olsenella, also beneficial, were increased only by SCB treatment. The potential pathogenic bacterium, Peptoclostridium, was reduced by SCB only while LA reduced Ruminococcus_2. The functional prediction analyses indicated that besides affecting local pathways such as cell cycle, bile secretion, proteasome or cAMP signaling pathway, both DFM might also affect important pathways in other tissues such as thyroid hormone synthesis or Dopaminergic synapse in the brain. Our results suggest that SCB is a modulator of gastrointestinal health and could prime the immune system prior to infection leading to an enhanced innate immune response in calves especially during periods of stress (e.g., weaning). Consequently, SCB might have the potential to strengthen calf immune system in the critical periods of disease susceptibility. Both SCB and LA changed the bacteria composition of the GIT. Overall, this study showed a remarkable demonstration of the importance of DFM on the GIT microbiota. However, what is needed is a complete and better understanding of the molecules and mechanisms driving the roles played by the microbiota and then to exploit this knowledge to improve health and increase animal production.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2019
Open Access Date: 16 April 2019
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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