L'implication de l'ubiquiline-2 dans l'agrégation de TDP-43 et la pathogénèse de la sclérose latérale amyotrophique
|Advisor:||Julien, Jean-Pierre; Dupré, Nicolas|
|Abstract:||Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common motor neuron disease in adults. It is characterized by progressive lost of upper and lower motor neurons leading to paralysis and eventually death from 2 to 5 years after the onset of the symptoms. Approximately 10% of the patients have a family history and the remaining patients have a sporadic form of the disease. Up to 15% also have fronto-temporal dementia (FTD) with prominent behavioral and personality changes. Numerous genes are known to be mutated in the familial form of the disease. This includes mutation in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43), Fused in sarcoma (FUS), optineurin (OPTN), Tank-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and ubqiquilin-2 (UBQLN2). These mutations lead to various pathological mechanisms. One of the most defined mechanism is the formation of cytoplasmic aggregates of TDP-43. These inclusions are positive for other proteins such as UBQLN2 and ubiquitin and are the pathological hallmark of the disease. UBQLN2 plays a central role in the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). Mutations in UBQLN2 have been link to TDP-43 pathology in vitro. However, the mechanisms underlying TDP-43 pathology induced by UBQLN2 are still unknown. In this thesis, we used neurons in culture and overexpressed human UBQLN2WT and human UBQLN2P497H to study the interaction between TDP-43 and UBQLN2. We demonstrated that the overexpression of UBQLN2 species enhanced TDP-43 cytoplasmic accumulation and aggregation. Since TDP-43 is known to interact with the p65 subunit of the NF-κB transcriptional factor, we analyzed the effect of UBQLN2 overexpression on the p65 activation. We observed an increase in NF-κB activation in cells transfected with either UBQLN2WT or UBQLN2P497H. We observed that the hyperactivation of NF-κB was caused by the action of the p38 MAPK in response to cellular stress and UBQLN2/TDP-43 cytoplasmic accumulation. This increase in NF-κB activity enhanced motor neuron death which was reversible by treatment with Withaferin A, a known NF-κB inhibitor. Because we observed an important synergistic effect in TDP-43 aggregation with UBQLN2 overexpression, we decided to generate a new transgenic mouse model with mutations in both UBQLN2 and TDP-43. Mice were generated with the expression of UBQLN2P497H gene under the control of the neurofilament heavy (NFH) promoter. The single transgenic UBQLN2P497H were then bred with our previously described TDP-43G348C transgenic mice. Whereas the single UBQLN2P497H transgenic mice developed only mild cognitive impairment, the double transgenic UBQLN2P497H; TDP-43G348C mice developed typical features of ALS/FTD with important TDP- 43 cytoplasmic aggregation, motor neurons loss, axonal degeneration, muscle atrophy, as well as motor and cognitive symptoms and gliosis. We took advantage of our new generated double transgenic mice to analyze the interaction between UBQLN2 and TDP-43 and to study the effect of aggregation of both proteins on inflammatory pathways. We observed that microglia from double transgenic mice were hyperresponsive to intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and that NF-κB activity was increased in double transgenic mice. Our results also suggested that UBQLN2 up-regulation induced TDP-43 aggregation by the sequestering of ubiquitin proteins into aggregates and the reduction of the UPS efficacy. Thus, increasing the pool of ubiquitin promoted the UPS function with ensuing reduction of TDP-43 cytosolic accumulation. In conclusion, this thesis demonstrates an important role of UBQLN2 species in TDP-43 mislocalization and aggregation in vitro and in vivo. It also suggests that UBQLN2 and TDP-43 possess a synergic role in neuroinflammation. Certainly, our double transgenic mice could be used to study future therapeutic avenues and these mechanisms could be targeted to treat TDP-43- associated ALS/FTD pathology.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||15 March 2019|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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