Effets préventifs et thérapeutiques des polyphénols dans des modèles in vitro de la maladie parodontale

Authors: Ben Lagha, Amel
Advisor: Grenier, Daniel
Abstract: Periodontal diseases that cause destruction of the tooth-supporting tissue are multifactorial inflammatory diseases whose primary etiology relates to the accumulation of a Gram negative bacterial biofilm in the gingival sulcus. These infections are modulated by immunological factors of the host that determine the evolution and severity of the disease. Periodontal diseases represent an important public health problem with a high prevalence and high cost of treatment. The periodontal therapeutic framework aims to control both the infection and the immune response with the objective to establish a microflora compatible with the maintenance of periodontal health. In this thesis, we hypothesized that polyphenols, including proanthocyanidins from berry fruits, catechins and theaflavins from tea, as well as resveratrol, can modulate the host response and the virulence factors expressed by periodontopathogens. In order to verify this hypothesis, the first objective of this project was to evaluate the ability of polyphenols to attenuate the growth and pathogenic mechanisms of the major periodontopathogenic bacteria, more specifically Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatumand Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.The second objective was to investigate the anti-inflammatory potential of polyphenols that may contribute to reduce the tissue destruction induced by the installation of chronic inflammation. Finally, the third objective was to determine the ability of polyphenols to enhance the epithelial barrier integrity with the aim of counteracting bacterial pathogenesis characterized by colonization, invasion and tissue destruction. The results obtained in this doctoral project have highlighted the antibacterial, anti-adhesion and anti-inflammatory properties of several classes of polyphenols, in addition to their ability to enhance the integrity of the epithelial barrier. These properties of polyphenols suggest that they may be promising candidates for novel therapeutic and preventive agents against periodontal diseases.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2019
Open Access Date: 14 March 2019
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/34013
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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