L'alimentation à base de concentrés ou de pâturage affecte la digestion, la croissance de même que la qualité de la carcasse et de la viande du chevreau

Authors: Brassard, Marie-Ève
Advisor: Cinq-Mars, DanyBerthiaume, Robert
Abstract: It has been suggested that microbial protein synthesis in the rumen would be optimized when dietary carbohydrates and proteins have synchronized rates and extent of degradation. The first objective of this thesis was to evaluate the effect of varying ruminal degradation rate of carbohydrates and nitrogen sources on intake, nitrogen balance, microbial protein yield in the rumen, and digestive kinetics of nutrients in the rumen of growing kids. Eight Boer goats were used. The treatments were arranged in a split-plot Latin square design with grain sources (barley or corn) forming the main plots (squares). Grain processing methods (rolled barley and cracked corn vs unprocessed grains) and levels of protein degradability [untreated soybean meal (SBM) vs heat-treated soybean meal (HSBM)] formed the subplots in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement for a total of eight dietary treatments. Kids fed corn had higher excretion of purine derivatives (PD) when coupled with SBM compared with HSBM and the contrary occurred with barley-fed kids (P ≤ 0.01). Unprocessed grain offered with SBM led to a higher PD excretion than with HSBM whereas protein degradability had no effect when processed grain was fed (P ≤ 0.03). Results of this experiment with high concentrate diets showed that microbial N synthesis in the rumen could be maximized in goat kids by combining slowly fermented grains (corn or unprocessed grains) with a highly degradable protein supplement (SBM). With barley, a more rapidly fermented grain, a greater microbial protein synthesis in the rumen was observed when supplementing a low degradable protein (HSBM). Each cereal used in animal feeding has distinct characteristics. Therefore, the second experiment of this thesis was conducted to compare the impact of corn and barley on growth performance, meat quality, and muscle fatty acid (FA) composition of goat kids. Twenty-four Boer males were blocked by body weight (BW) and allotted randomly within block to one of three experimental diets. Treatments consisted in varying ratios of barley to corn in the concentrate: 1) 100:0, 2) 50:50, and 3) 0:100. Fifteen randomly selected kids (n = 5 kids/treatment) were slaughtered to evaluate carcass traits and meat quality. Inclusion of barley in diet linearly increased concentrate intake (P < 0.01) and tended to increase average daily gain (ADG; P = 0.08). There was no significant difference on carcass traits and meat quality among dietary treatments, and overall good meat quality was obtained. Proportions of n-3 and n-6 FA increased linearly (P < 0.01), whereas the n-6/n-3 FA ratio linearly decreased (P < 0.01) in meat fat as corn inclusion increased in the diets. Finally, breed is a parameter also known to influence meat production and quality. The aim of the last study of this thesis was to evaluate the effects of breed and feeding regimen on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of male goat. Forty meat (Boer) or dairy (Alpine and Saanen) goat kids were blocked within breed according to BW. Kids within each block were then randomly allotted to intensive rotational grazing or a concentrate-based diet. Meat kids had a greater ADG than dairy kids (P < 0.01), but feeding treatments did not affect growth rate. For most of the primal cuts, meat kids accumulated more fat and less lean when they were fed concentrate in comparison with pasture, whereas these parameters were less influenced by dietary treatments in dairy kids (feed × breed, P ≤ 0.07). Pasture-fed kids had higher glycolytic potential resulting in lower meat ultimate pH. However, Warner-Bratzler shear force was higher for grazing kids compared with concentrate-fed kids (P < 0.01). Concentrate-fed kids showed an almost 4-fold greater n-6/n-3 FA ratio in meat fat compared with pasturefed kids, whereas this ratio was 1.4-fold greater for dairy kids in comparison with meat kids (P < 0.01). Intensive rotational pasture allowed similar average daily gain in comparison with concentrate-based diet, less internal fat accumulation in the carcass, and good meat quality. Furthermore, dairy breeds represented a valuable alternative for producing goat meat.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2019
Open Access Date: 13 March 2019
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/34001
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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