Composition corporelle et atteinte musculaire chez les patients atteint d'un cancer du poumon : mécanismes, impacts fonctionnels et réversibilité

Authors: Coats, Valérie
Advisor: Saey, DidierMaltais, François
Abstract: With 1.6 million new cases diagnosed each year and 1.3 million deaths, lung cancer is a major health problem, ranking among the world's leading cancers in terms of mortality. As a consequence of the disease itself or its treatment, muscle impairment is often part of the usual clinical picture of cancer patients and may occur early in the disease continuum. In addition, it may have a significant clinical impact on muscle function, functional capacity, and decreased quality of life for patients. However, despite its clinical importance, muscle impairment and its underlying mechanisms as well as its relationship to muscle function remain relatively poorly documented in lung cancer particularly at diagnosis time. Therefore, my interest in this thesis was to study muscle impairment, body composition, muscle function and functional capacity of patients with lung cancer. More specifically, I wanted to determine whether there was an impairment of body and muscle composition at the time of diagnosis in patients with lung cancer and assess the impact of this impairment on patients’ functional capacity as well as survival. Then, I wanted to address the issue of muscle impairment in lung cancer patients by adopting a more functional and mechanistic point of view by studying the signaling pathways involved in the muscle balance of these patients at the time of their diagnostic. Finally, I have been interested in the reversibility potential of body and muscle composition impairment in response to a rehabilitation program carried out as a pilot study on telerehabilitation. First, our results highlighted that at the time of diagnosis, a muscle impairment was already present in a majority of patients suffering from lung cancer. In addition, we also established that the latter was manifested by a decrease in participation in physical activities and was reflected longitudinally by a decrease in patient survival. However, it would appear that, despite the morphological changes in the muscle, the contractile function of the muscle itself is preserved at the time of diagnosis providing a window of opportunity for adopting countermeasures to maintain or improve muscle function. In this regard, we have also been able to establish that rehabilitation is a feasible, safe and effective therapeutic modality for maintaining muscle function in patients with lung cancer. Considering the link between muscle wasting and important clinical issues such as mortality and chemotherapy related toxicity, early assessment of body and muscle composition as well as features of muscle function may allow more effective screening and better management of patients with lung cancer
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2019
Open Access Date: 7 March 2019
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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