Mécanismes neuropsychologiques transdiagnostiques en présence de troubles psychiatriques dans un contexte de maltraitance

Authors: R.-Mercier, Alexandra
Advisor: Cellard, Caroline
Abstract: People with a history of childhood maltreatment are more likely to present with several psychiatric disorders. Comorbidity between disorders tends to be the rule rather than the exception in individuals who have experienced childhood maltreatment. Given the presence of multiple comorbid psychiatric disorders in this population, the transdiagnostic approach offers a conceptual frame with which to explore common dimensions and risk factors of psychiatric disorders. According to the transdiagnostic approach, dimensions and risk factors shared between psychiatric disorders could be genetic, neurobiological, psychological and neuropsychological. However, few studies have identified neuropsychological mechanisms associated with maltreatment among people with several psychiatric disorders. The general objective of the current thesis is to explore the transdiagnostic neuropsychological mechanisms associated with childhood maltreatment among people with psychiatric disorders. The first study, a meta-analysis, highlighted transdiagnostic neuropsychological mechanisms among people with several psychiatric disorders. Specifically, childhood maltreatment had a significant impact on working memory, verbal episodic memory, intelligence and processing speed. The second study, an empirical study, explored the role of neuropsychological impairments in the presence of psychiatric symptoms among teenagers with a history of childhood maltreatment and multiple psychiatric disorders. This study showed that retrieval in visual episodic memory and planning are predictors of externalizing symptoms among teenagers. Altered executive mechanisms could explain the variance of externalizing symptoms among teenagers with several psychiatric disorders. The work within this current thesis represents the first attempt to explore the common neuropsychological dimensions between psychiatric disorders in a transdiagnostic approach. Indeed, this thesis identifies neuropsychological mechanisms associated with childhood maltreatment that are common among people with several psychiatric disorders. Moreover, some of these neuropsychological mechanisms are predictors of the variance of externalizing symptoms among teenagers. In short, this thesis improves the current understanding of the complex relation between childhood maltreatment, neuropsychological mechanisms and the presence of psychiatric symptoms, according to the conceptual framework of the transdiagnostic approach.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2019
Open Access Date: 22 February 2019
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/33728
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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