Développement de nouveaux matériaux de haute inertie thermique à base de bois et matériaux à changement de phase biosourcés

Authors: Mathis, Damien
Advisor: Blanchet, PierreLandry, Véronic; Lagière, Philippe
Abstract: Phase Change Materials (PCMs) are able to store a high amount of latent heat, which can improve buildings energy efficiency. During the heating season, solar energy can be stored during the day to be released at night, reducing the heating needs. During summer, daily maximum peak temperature can be reduced. In order to maximize the energy benefits, PCMs have to be implemented carefully. This thesis presents three major axes of research about wood/PCMs hybrid materials. The first axis is about manufacturing and characterizing woodbased decorative panels of high thermal mass. The second axis aims to evaluate the performance of such panels with two instrumented wood-frame test huts placed on LAVAL University Campus. The third axis is about impregnating the lamella of Engineering Wood Flooring (EWF) with PCM microcapsules. For the first axis, interior wood-based decorative panels containing PCMs were manufactured. Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF), was used as the main component and High Density Fiberboard (HDF) was used for the inner side of the panel. Several bio-based PCMs were chosen to load the panels. A macroencapsulation of the PCMs was achieved using polyethylene bags. The latent heat storage of the panels was assessed with a thermal flow meter using a Dynamic Heat Flux Meter Apparatus (DHFMA) method. A maximum latent heat storage of 57.1 J/g has been measured, which is comparable to existing panels containing PCMs. Thermal behavior of pure PCMs has been assessed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and then compared to the panels behavior. Significant differences have been revealed. Hygromechanical behavior of the panels has been evaluated, compared to a reference, and has been revealed of importance in case of industrialization. For the second axis, two experimental timber-frame test-huts have been implemented and were placed on the LAVAL University campus. One hut was equipped with standard wood panels whereas the other one was equipped with wood-based panels containing PCMs such as manufactured in the first axis. The in-situ performance of the panels was assessed over several seasons. In winter, the panels induced a reduction of the heating consumption. This reduction reached a maximum of 41% in May. During summer, the panels are generally able to reduce the daily peak temperature. However, their performance was found limited by the solidification of the PCM, which was hard to achieve during hottest nights. For the third axis, lamellas of Engineered Wood Flooring (EWF) have been impregnated with bio-based PCM microcapsules, using water as a solvent. Two wood species were chosen: red oak and sugar. A significant thermal mass enhancement of 77% was measured for the red oak. Impregnation of sugar maple was found harder to achieve and thus its thermal mass enhancement was lower. Reflective microscopy allowed to observe the microcapsules filling red oak initial wood big vessels, forming aggregates. Some microcapsules were also observed in the sugar maple vessels but in lower quantity. Red oak was varnished with a 100 % UV solid wood coating and submitted to pull-off adhesion tests. These tests did not reveal any significant effect of an impregnation on the varnish adherence.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2019
Open Access Date: 21 February 2019
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/33718
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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