Comportement physique, chimique et mécanique du bois suite à la compression sous l'effet de la chaleur et de l'humidité
|Advisor:||Cloutier, Alain; Laghdir, Aziz|
|Abstract:||The main purpose of this research is to establish a better understanding of the thermo-hygromechanical (THM) densification process and physical, mechanical and chemical behavior of wood under diverse temperature and humidity conditions. THM densification is a complicated process involving simultaneous, coupled heat and mass transfer phenomena, several instantaneous and time-dependent deformation mechanisms as well as some physical, mechanical and chemical changes in wood. Despite numerous researches in the past decades, the basic mechanisms of compressive behavior of wood subjected to load and moisture variation are not completly understood. Wood densification and stress relaxation are very complicated, because both recoverable and permanent deformations occur at various stages of the pressing process. Moreover, deformations are affected by many physical factors, and the compressive behavior in turn affects the entire physical system. In this study, the THM densification process was optimized using response surface methods (RSM) to investigate the effects of temperature and treatment duration on hardness and compression set recovery (CSR) and further to analyze the interactions between these physical parameters. Several physical and mechanical properties such as density profile, compression set recovery, hardness and bending strength of control and THM densified wood were evaluated and compared. The surface chemical changes of densified samples were examined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS), respectively. In addition, evolutions of oven-dry average density, permeability and thermal conductivity during the THM densification process were experimentally determined. The results suggested that the optimum densification conditions resulting in high hardness and low compression set recovery were obtained at a temperature of 180 °C, a densification time of 1004 s, and a post-treatment time of 1445 s. The density of the densified samples was dramatically increased compared to the control sample. Both steam and temperature have important impacts on mechanical, chemical properties and dimensional stability of sugar maple wood. A higher percentage of weight loss occurred at 220 °C, resulting in an important decrease in the density and hardness of wood. However, almost no compression set recovery was observed for the sugar maple wood densified at 220 °C. In addition, high temperature and steam are helpful to fix the compressive deformation. Steam could facilitate the advanced degradation of wood polymers. THM densification treatment resulted in significant chemical changes on the wood surface. The results of the ATR-FTIR spectra confirmed the decomposition of hemicelluloses and the relative content of cellulose and lignin on wood surface increased. The Py-GC/MS and XPS results in term of the O/C ratio increase indicated that chemical substances containing oxygenated functionality were formed after densification. Densification treatment favored the depolymerization of hemicelluloses and cellulose resulting in the content of anhydrous sugars (levoglucosan) increased on wood surface. Densification also facilitated the cleavage of lignin side chains, resulting in the increase of the content of phenyl units with short chains. The oven-dry density did not exactly increase with the decrease of its thickness, the permeability of the control sample could be 5 to 40 times higher than that of densified wood, which indicated that the voids of wood reduced notably after densification treatment. The thermal conductivity increased by 0.5 - 1.5 percent increase of one percent moisture content for densified sugar maple wood. The thermal conductivity of densified samples was lower than that of the control samples.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||9 February 2019|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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