Nutrigénomique appliquée aux gènes candidats modulant les profils lipidique, glycémique et inflammatoire suite à une supplémentation en acides gras polyinsaturés oméga-3

Authors: Cormier, Hubert
Advisor: Vohl, Marie-ClaudeLemieux, Simone
Abstract: The literature suggests that an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation may be beneficial in reducing metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). However, the effects reported by an n-3 PUFA supplementation, including lower TG levels, vary from one individual to another due to genetic variations. There is a great interindividual variability in the population, which is reflected by different responses to a dietary intervention. As part of this PhD project, 210 participants were recruited. In order to study the interindividual variability observed in the response to a nutrient, a 6-week fish oil (5 g/day) supplementation was carried out in the participants. It was shown that 28.8% of the study participants did not respond as expected to an n-3 PUFA supplementation. Moreover, an increase in TG plasma levels was observed in these hypo-responders. SNPs on genes related to the biosynthetic pathway of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids (FADS1-2-3 and ELOVL2-5) were associated alone or in an interaction effect with the fish oil supplementation with the plasma TG response following the 6-week n-3 PUFA supplementation. These same SNPs modulate fatty acid levels in plasma phospholipids as well as fasting insulin levels and homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS) index. In addition to the effect on plasma TG, n-3 PUFA supplementation has been shown to exert a modest effect on the expression of inflammatory genes and to lower plasma levels of inflammatory biomarkers (CRP, TNFA and IL-6) under the influence of SNPs from inflammatory genes (CRP, TNF-LTA, IL-1B and IL-6). This thesis also includes a knowledge translation component where the perception of nutrigenomics, the level of interest in this science, the understanding of the main limitations of nutrigenetic testing, as well as the best ways to acquire knowledge in nutrigenomics were assessed by registered dietitians from the province of Quebec (Canada). Overall, these results demonstrate the presence of a large interindividual variability observed in the TG plasma levels and that SNPs on genes involved in lipid metabolism and inflammation may modulate the lipid, glycemic and inflammatory responses following an n-3 PUFA supplementation.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2019
Open Access Date: 9 February 2019
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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