Caractérisation génomique et transcriptomique de la microspore embryogénique chez l'orge

Authors: Bélanger, Sébastien
Advisor: Belzile, FrançoisJacques, Pierre-Étienne
Abstract: Androgenesis is a plant biotechnology used to fix the genetic background of plants in a single generation. This is based on the ability of an immature pollen grain, the microspore, to restore its totipotency, to dedifferentiate and then to engage in the path of embryogenesis. However, it is observed that the ability of the microspore to engage in embryogenesis is genetically variable. Despite the many desirable attributes of androgenesis, an undesirable side - effect is the segregation distortion (SD) encountered in populations resulting from this biotechnology. My thesis focuses on (i) the study of the transcriptome of microspores undergoing a developmental transition from the pollen - grain pathway towards embryogenesis and (ii) to identify when SD arises in the process and in which genomic regions it occurs. I used barley as a model species for my studies. Transcriptomic analysis was performed on microspores isolated from anthers at three stages corresponding to the microspore before (day 0) and immediately after (days 2 and 5) the application of a stress treatment aimed at inducing embryogenesis. I was interested in two categories of genes: those expressed exclusively at a specific stage of microspore development and those that were differentially expressed during the initiation of androgenesis. I was able to identify genes expressed exclusively in the microspore on day 0 (11), 2 (34) or 5 (367). On day 5, I found the induction of many genes encoding transcription factors (T Fs) in addition to genes involved in the synthesis or signal transduction of many growth regulators. The analysis of differentially expressed genes allowed me to identify certain metabolic processes that were activated/repressed during microspore development from day 0 to 2 and from day 2 to 5. Genes expressed exclusively at a specific stage of development could serve as molecular markers indicative of the performance in androgenesis to optimize isolated microspore culture protocols. Then, SD was studied using a whole - genome genotyping approach. I first developed an innovative, reproducible and accurate genotypic analysis methodology to determine allelic frequency on pooled samples. This method was then used to estimate allelic frequencies in samples of microspores (before and after the application of stress), embryos and regenerated plants. I showed that SD arises during both the development of embryos and the regeneration of plants. No SD was observed in samples of microspores. My results show that the selective forces promoting SD act during in vitro culture. Still using the same genotyping method performed on pooled samples, I identified and compared the frequency and extent of SD in 12 populations of doubled haploid lines (DH). A greater number of DH (12) populations were characterized in my study alone than the sum of all previous studies in barley. I showed that segregation distortion regions greatly differ in their position, extent, and magnitude in different DH populations. Knowledge of these alleles would be useful to predict the androgenic potential of a genotype in a breeding program. My dissertation has allowed research into barley microspores, or more widely androgenesis, to enter into the “omics” era. On an unprecedented scale, my transcriptomic study explores and describes the gene expression changes that occur during the developmental transition that the microspore undergoes in the course of androgenesis. My genomic study identifies when the selection (producing SD) arises in this system and describes which chromosomal regions are affected by this distortion. In light of my findings, in the final chapter I propose some lines of research to further study the molecular mechanisms driving the developmental transition from microspores to embryos and to develop genotyping tools to use SD as a genetic improvement tool.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2019
Open Access Date: 26 January 2019
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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