Étude des effets des acides gras oméga-3 et de nouvelles bactéries probiotiques pour contrer les désordres associés à l'obésité au niveau métabolique et intestinal

Authors: Le Barz, Mélanie
Advisor: Marette, André; Urdaci, Maria
Abstract: The obesity epidemic reaches alarming rate throughout the world. Obesity development is related to an increase in the prevalence of metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. In the past decades, research turns into the analysis of the intestinal microbiota and many papers demonstrated an important role of microbial dysbiosis in the development of metabolic diseases. Indeed, the gastro-intestinal tract and gut microbiota represent a vast interface between diet and host organism. Gut dysbiosis is linked to metabolic inflammation and altered metabolism in obesity. In this context, the use of food-based treatments to improve gastro-intestinal health may help prevent obesity-linked metabolic syndrome. In a first study, we attempted to understand the role of the gut microbiota in the beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids in host’s metabolic health. Thus, we performed an in vivo protocol in order to compare the mechanisms related to a long-term oral supplementation of omega-3-rich fish oil, with mechanisms induced in a transgenic model of mice able to convert omega-6 into omega-3, endogenously. Our results demonstrated that mice gavaged with fish oil were totally protected against the development of liver steatosis induced by the high-fat diet. In parallel, insulin resistance and glucose intolerance were decreased in fat-1 transgenic animals. Despite different metabolic effects, both models also significantly reduced cholesterol level in plasma, and based on the literature, it may be associated with a significant increase in proportions of the genus Allobaculum in faeces. However, further investigation of gut microbiota and predictive analysis of its functions, demonstrated that oral omega-3 supplemented mice showed more modulations that fat-1 mice. It suggests a role of the gut-liver axis in the beneficial effects of omega-3 in prevention of hepatic steatosis development. It could be also explained by the increase in the production of propionate in the gut, which can then reach the liver through the portal vein. The second protocol reported in this manuscript, is a part of an important project whose final aim is to select a new bacterial strain presenting anti-obesity properties, in order to be incorporated into dairy products. Results showed that Lb102, Bf141 and P35 significantly prevented the body weight gain induced by the diet high-fat high-sucrose diet, without altering the amount of ingested calories. These treatments also resulted in a decrease of visceral adipose tissue inflammation, insulin resistance and an increase of glucose tolerance. Despite similar but important metabolic effects, analysis of the gut microbiota and gene expression in colon, suggest strain-dependent mechanisms. It should also be noted that these three strains demonstrated potent probiotic effects in prevention of obesity and related metabolic disorders without (or slightly) affecting the composition of gut microbiota. However, analysis of tissue and gut inflammatory status suggest modulations of microbial functions, especially for the P35 strain, known for its anti-inflammatory properties, which demonstrated more beneficial effects in the gastro-intestinal tract than other strains
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2018
Open Access Date: 25 January 2019
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/33296
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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