Études de modificateurs pour le transfert de chiralité sur une surface de platine & synthèse totale de l'(+)-O-méthylasparvenone et d'autres métabolites fongiques avec intérêt biothérapeutique

Authors: Lafleur-Lambert, Raphaël
Advisor: Boukouvalas, JohnMcBreen, Peter Hugh
Abstract: The work of this thesis is, in part, the result of a co-direction between the surface laboratory headed by Professor Peter McBreen and the organic synthesis laboratory led by Professor John Boukouvalas. All the images were obtained by the students in the surface laboratory and my work consisted of taking part in syntheses of the organic compounds. The other part concerns projects in total synthesis. In the first chapter, there is the presentation of the Orito reaction, an asymmetric heterogeneous catalytic reaction, using Cinchona alkaloids and analogous derivatives as a chiral modifier. Chapter II, Part A, discusses the understanding of chiral modifier structures and their role associated with the chiral transfer during the Orito reaction. The methods of organic chemistry, namely the hydrogenolysis of the compound followed by the synthesis of a known derivative, have made it possible to prove that the absolute structure of the synthetic modifier PNEA is R, S. The importance of this correction comes from the fact that the structure of the compound is directly related to its performance, comparing with its epimer which does not have the same chiral transfer activities. These works were published in the journal ACS Catalysis. In Chapter II, Part B, it is the study of the transfer of chirality of a single synthetic modifier not carrying a nitrogen group that we have synthesized for the laboratory of the surfaces with the dihydroxylation of Sharpless. The absence of nitrogen function is very revealing as to the mechanistic understanding of chirality transfer. This absence demonstrates that the modifier design does not require this type of atom in its structure. The article on this subject can be found in the journal Surface Science. Chapter III contains the first synthesis of a natural product, antrocinnamomin D, a member of a family of compounds derived from a fungus called Niuchangchih. The method of synthesis used also makes it possible to obtain two other members of the family, the antrodins A and B, a maleic anhydride and a maleimide. Antrocinnamomin D, antrodin A and B were successively obtained in 6-8 steps with yields of 51%, 46% and 43% respectively. This synthesis includes a cross-coupling that has been shown to be very effective. This coupling involves as metal catalyst a compound based on Fe, an abundant and low toxicity element, which has been able to compete with Pd, one of the usual noble metal catalysts. This synthesis is found in the journal Tetrahedron. Chapter IV deals with the total synthesis of a rare natural product without nitrogen active as a serotonin antagonist. This product was isolated from a soil fungus called Aspergillus parvulus. Its antagonistic role is at the 2C receptor of serotonin. This receptor is associated with depression-related disorders and the antagonistic agents have shown beneficial effects for patients with this health problem. This natural antagonist called (+)-O-methylasparvenone is part of a family of natural compounds called 4-hydroxy-1-tetralone. Their simplistic structure hides a complexity expressed by the scarcity of enantioselective synthesis of these compounds. The asymmetric synthesis of the antagonist, a trisubstituted 4-hydroxy-1-tetralone, was accomplished with an enantiomeric excess of 94% in 8 steps with an overall yield of 22%. This synthesis includes three key steps, including reductive alkylation, asymmetric alkynylation, and Friedel-Crafts acylation. This synthesis was reported in the journal Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry. In Chapter V, we find a total, unified and regioselective synthesis of two compounds of the rubrolide family, the R and S members. These two compounds are derived from the fungus Aspergillus terreus OUCMDZ-1925. Rubrolide R has been reported as an antioxidant and rubrolide S has been shown to have anti-influenza A (H1N1) activity. Both synthesis approaches involve both a vinylogous aldol condensation and a Suzuki coupling as key steps. This project gives access to rubrolide R in 6 steps by a synthetic route with a yield of 8.9% and to rubrolide S with an additional step for an overall yield of 8.5%.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2018
Open Access Date: 11 February 2020
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/33291
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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