L'accessibilité des aménagements piétonniers aux personnes présentant des incapacités physiques

Authors: Gamache, Stéphanie
Advisor: Routhier, FrançoisVandersmissen, Marie-HélèneMorales, Ernesto
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: The increasing proportion of individuals with physical disabilities (motor, visual or hearing) is an important source of concern. These individuals face numerous daily difficulties related to built environments. Pedestrian infrastructures (e.g., signage, crosswalks, sidewalks) are no exception. Due to their design and maintenance, they pose numerous obstacles limiting the efficiency and the safety of travelling habits of individuals with physical disabilities. This can greatly hinder their ability to fulfill daily tasks. As of now, in the province of Quebec, there are no uniform or clear guidelines based on scientific evidence ensuring accessibility to pedestrian infrastructures for individuals with physical disabilities. This thesis’s general objective is to identify pedestrian infrastructures’ features favouring accessibility and safe mobility of individuals with physical disabilities applicable in the province of Quebec. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS PER SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE: A partnership/participative approach has been used (consultative committee: ministère des Transports, de la Mobilité durable et de l’Électrification des Transports du Québec (MTMDET), Union des municipalités du Québec (UMQ), Fédération québécoise des municipalités (FQM), Office des personnes handicapées du Québec (OPHQ), Confédération des organismes des personnes handicapées du Québec (COPHAN), Réseau de transport de la Capitale (RTC) and Ville de Québec). The three following specific objectives have been pursued: 1) Identify existing practices for the design of accessible pedestrian infrastructures for individuals with physical disabilities in Quebec’s municipalities and the associated needs. A web survey, addressed to municipalities (n=507 identified) of various sizes, was developed by Tailored Design Method. It allowed the identification of existing practices, facilitators, and obstacles for the design of accessible pedestrian infrastructures in Quebec’s municipalities as well as their needs regarding support for their design. Quantitative descriptive and recursive partitioning analyses revealed that Quebec’s municipalities have few resources/tools to design accessible pedestrian infrastructures, particularly those of less than 15 000 inhabitants (without the obligation of an action plan for individuals with physical disabilities according to the policy À part entière pour un véritable exercice du droit à l’égalité). Accessible practices also present when other practices of the same nature are in place, which implementation should be favoured, as well as the need for a tool to help design practitioners through the design process of accessible pedestrian infrastructures have been identified. 2) Review accessible and safe pedestrian infrastructures for individuals with physical disabilities. A mapping review (scientific and grey literature) allowed the compilation of recommendations for the design of accessible pedestrian infrastructures from 41 scientific articles, evaluated for their quality which was judged as low to moderate, and 96 pertinent documents. The recommendations, which were numerous, varied and were potentially not applicable in the province of Quebec, were rarely evaluated to identify their level of accessibility for various groups of individuals with physical disabilities or confronted to find an ideal solution. 3) Evaluate accessibility and applicability, in the province of Quebec, of the identified accessible and safe pedestrian infrastructures for individuals with physical disabilities. Nominal groups took place with individuals with physical disabilities, health clinicians and researchers in the fields of rehabilitation and design (accessibility experts) to determine which recommendations, from the mapping review, were judged as ensuring accessibility to individuals with physical disabilities. Other nominal groups took place with municipal and transportation agencies’ representatives to determine if the recommendations identified by the accessibility experts were applicable. The final recommendations, forwarded to all the consulted experts, provided a high level of agreement. Only few minor modifications had to be brought. Consequently, design guidelines were developed for eight pedestrian infrastructures: 1) Curb cuts; 2) Sidewalks; 3) Crosswalks; 4) Signage; 5) Rest areas/urban furniture; 6) Ramps; 7) Stairs; and 8) Handrails. A compilation of recommendations has been produced for bus stops, design guidelines could not be developed for this pedestrian infrastructure. CONCLUSIONS : The developed design guidelines, based on scientific evidence, have been judged as useful and applicable in the province of Quebec for the design of accessible pedestrian infrastructures. They are susceptible of being accepted and applied by Quebec’s municipalities. They have a strong potential in aiming for better accessibility and increased social participation of individuals with physical disabilities.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2018
Open Access Date: 23 January 2019
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/33250
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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