Optimization of time-dependent routing problems considering dynamic paths and fuel consumption
|Advisor:||Renaud, Jacques; Coelho, Leandro C.|
|Abstract:||In recent years, freight transportation has evolved into a multi-faceted logistics challenge. The immense volume of freight has considerably increased the flow of commodities in all transport modes. Despite the vital role of freight transportation in the economic development, it also negatively impacts both the environment and human health. At the local and regional areas, a significant portion of goods delivery is transported by trucks, which emit a large amount of pollutants. Road freight transportation is a major contributor to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and to fuel consumption. To reduce the significant impact of freight transportation emissions on environment, new alternative planning and coordination strategies directly related to routing and scheduling operations are required at the operational, environmental and temporal dimensions. In large urban areas, trucks must travel at the speed imposed by traffic, and congestion events have major adverse consequences on speed level, travel time and GHG emissions particularly at certain periods of day. This variability in speed over time has a significant impact on routing and scheduling. From a broader perspective, our research addresses Time-Dependent Distribution Problems (TDDPs) considering dynamic paths and GHG emissions. Considering that vehicle speeds vary according to time-dependent congestion, the goal is to minimize the total travel cost function incorporating driver and GHG emissions costs while respecting capacity constraints and service time restrictions. Further, geographical and traffic information can be used to construct a multigraph modeling path flexibility on large road networks, as an extension to the classical customers network. The underlying physical sub-network between each pair of customers for each shipment is explicitly considered to find connecting road paths. Path selection decisions complement routing ones, impacting the overall cost, GHG emissions, the travel time between nodes, and thus the set of a feasible time-dependent least cost paths. While the search space increases, solving TDDPs considering dynamic paths and time-varying speeds may provide a new scope for enhancing the effectiveness of route plans. One way to reduce emissions is to consider congestion and being able to route traffic around it. Accounting for and avoiding congested paths is possible as the required traffic data is available and, at the same time, has a great potential for both energy and cost savings. Hence, we perform a large empirical analysis of historical traffic and shipping data. Therefore, we introduce the Time-dependent Quickest Path Problem with Emission Minimization, in which the objective function comprises GHG emissions, driver and congestion costs. Travel costs are impacted by traffic due to changing congestion levels depending on the time of the day, vehicle types and carried load. We also develop time-dependent lower and upper bounds, which are both accurate and fast to compute. Computational experiments are performed on real-life instances that incorporate the variation of traffic throughout the day. We then study the quality of obtained paths considering time-varying speeds over the one based only on fixed speeds... Keywords : Time-dependent routing; time-dependent quickest paths; traffic congestion; road network; heuristic; greenhouse gas emissions; emission models; supervised learning.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||5 December 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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