Conception et développement d'hydrogels pour l'ingénierie tissulaire appliquée au tissu osseux

Authors: Maisani, Mathieu
Advisor: Mantovani, D.; Chassande, Olivier
Abstract: New strategies to overcome the clinical limitations of current techniques for bone defect filling and regeneration has led to the involvement of bone tissue engineering. Indeed, strategies based on tissue engineering techniques seem to be an alternative to the use of grafts and thus to defeat their limits. The approach employed in this thesis consists in development and use of hydrogels as scaffold materials for bone defect filling and regeneration. There are many approaches that also use hydrogels, each one with its advantages and limitations. In this context, our work consisted in the use of a non-polymeric hydrogel as basic material in the development of strategies for bone tissue engineering. Briefly, several cell types are present within bone tissue and will participate in the processes of bone formation and regeneration. The objective of our strategies was the contribution of exogenous stem cells and then their differentiation into osteogenic cells or the recruitment and differentiation of the host cells into osteogenic cells within the material. The GNF gel was used as a three-dimensional matrix considering its properties of injectability, gelation in the absence of toxic crosslinking agent and its osteoinductive potential. The goal was to develop strategies for bone tissue engineering by combining the GNF gel with a natural matrix of cellular collagen or bioactive molecules to promote the regeneration of bone lesions. Initially, our work was based on the association of the scaffolds based on GNF hydrogels with exogenous stem cells seeded in a matrix of collagen gels. Next, our work focused on the association of a GNF hydrogel scaffold with an osteogenic growth factor. This work allowed to develop and characterize strategies relevant to the regeneration of bone lesions based on the use of hydrogels.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2017
Open Access Date: 28 November 2018
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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