Biodiversité des ravageurs lépidoptères et de leurs parasitoïdes en cannebergières biologiques et conventionnelles au Centre-du-Québec

Authors: Drolet, Isabelle
Advisor: Fournier, ValérieCloutier, Conrad
Abstract: Parasitoids are recognized as beneficial organisms in agro-ecosystems. They are known to play a role in the regulation of various herbivorous insects and their ecological function favors a balance of arthropod communities helping to reduce pesticides dependency. The main objective was to conduct a taxonomic study of the parasitoids of lepidopteran pests on commercial cranberry crop (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton) in Center-du-Québec. This study also aimed to compare the biodiversity of the caterpillars and their parasitoids under conventional vs organic managements as well as field density and parasitism of five major pest species of economic importance: Macaria sulphurea (Packard) (Geometridae), Macaria brunneata (Thunberg) (Geometridae), Xylena nupera (Linter) (Noctuidae), Rhopobota naevana (Hübner) (Tortricidae) and Sparganothis sulfureana (Clemens) (Tortricidae). Eight and 16 cranberry farms were sampled in 2012 and 2013, respectively, using two sampling techniques: sweep net and direct visual observations. A total of 1497 caterpillars, comprising 18 species, were captured and individually reared under controlled laboratory conditions to detect parasitism. The five primary pests made up more than 80% of the larval population each year. Pest biodiversity varied between the two pest managements: R. naevana was dominant on organic farms, whereas conventional farms had greater pest richness and evenness, M. sulphurea, M. brunneata and X. nupera being the most abundant. The reared parasitoid community (N = 171) was composed of 25 species or higher taxa and the most common species belong to the genera Aleiodes, Meteorus, Microplitis, Oncophanes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae); Hyposoter, Exetastes, Phytodietus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae); and Campylocheta, Nemorilla (Diptera: Tachinidae). Parasitism differed depending on host biodiversity and not on farming systems. Among the four primary pests which were attacked, X. nupera was the most parasitized, followed by S. sulfureana, M. sulphurea and the least parasitized was R. naevana
Document Type: Mémoire de maîtrise
Issue Date: 2018
Open Access Date: 23 November 2018
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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