Impact d'interventions non pharmacologiques sur les biomarqueurs émergents du risque cardiovasculaire : fonctionnalité des HDL et PCSK9

Authors: Boyer, Marjorie
Advisor: Arsenault, BenoitLarose, Éric
Abstract: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the world, despite significant progress in the management of traditional CVD risk factors. New biomarkers are emerging, such as the HDL cholesterol efflux capacities (HDL-CEC) that are associated with CVD, independently of HDL cholesterol levels. Another biomarker is proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), which increases low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels by degrading the LDL receptor. Little is known about the factors that influence HDLCEC and PCSK9 physiological variation. The overall objective of this thesis is to determine whether improvements in lifestyle and bariatric surgery can influence these biomarkers. To achieve this objective, we have studied three populations at risk: 86 patients with coronary artery disease, 117 men with abdominal obesity and dyslipidemic and 69 men and women with severe obesity. The first two cohorts followed a 1-year lifestyle modification program aimed at achieving a minimum of 150 minutes of aerobic physical activity weekly and improving diet quality. We measured HDL-CEC using cell assays in both populations before and after the interventions. The cohort of patients with severe obesity underwent bariatric surgery of biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch. PCSK9 levels were measured by ELISA in all cohorts, at the beginning and at the end of the interventions. Our results showed that in coronary patients and men with abdominal obesity, the interventions led to minor changes in PCSK9 levels. In contrast, in men with abdominal obesity PCSK9 levels were acutely decreased by a high-fat meal. Bariatric surgery increased PCSK9 concentration in the acute phase, but decreased in the long term. These results suggest that PCSK9 levels could be modified following drastic interventions such as significant weight loss following bariatric surgery. Lifestyle modification program induced significant increases of HDL-CEC in coronary patients and men with abdominal obesity. In addition, improvements in HDLCEC following lifestyle modification interventions were mainly explained by increases in apolipoprotein A1 and HDL cholesterol levels. In conclusion, non-pharmacological interventions appear to positively modulate HDL-CEC and modestly influence PCSK9 in populations at high cardiovascular risk, which could partly explain the beneficial impact of these interventions on cardiovascular risk.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2018
Open Access Date: 22 November 2018
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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