L'action publique québécoise à l'égard des personnes âgées vivant avec une incapacité : une analyse sociologique des discours entourant le partage de la responsabilité des soins (1980-2015)

Authors: Deshaies, Marie-Hélène
Advisor: Rousseau, StéphanieD'Amours, Martine
Abstract: Three major forms of inequality are interrelated in contemporary modalities of sharing responsibility for caring for people with disabilities: 1) the persistence of a gendered division of caregiving responsibilities and its consequences on the professional and economic trajectory of women; 2) the transfer of some of these tasks to female workers with precarious status; 3) lack of access to care for people with disabilities, especially for low-income older women, in the context of reduced availability of family members and limited services offered by the state. Based on the idea that the implementation of public policies is never the simple consequence of identifying a social problem, but that it implies a political reading of the challenge it faces (Jenson, 2008) or otherwise stated that it involves a particular way of representing the problem (diagnosis) and the solutions (prognosis) to be implemented (Bacchi, 2009, 2012; Verloo, 2007), this thesis aims to explore how certain discursive events that shape public policy have helped define the modalities of the share responsibility for caring for seniors with disabilities. The formulated hypothesis is that discourses carry elements that contribute to challenge or reinforce social relations creating inequalities between women and men. The speeches produced by different groups of actors during the Rochon Commission (1985–1988), the Clair Commission (2000) and the Consultations on the Autonomy Insurance Project (2013) were analyzed and compared according to a synchronic then diachronic perspective. This thesis suggests that the three discursive events under study led to different problematizations of the issue of shared responsibility for caring for older people with disabilities and that, within these discussions, there are spaces of reproduction and contestation of social relations of caring generating inequalities. The speeches heard thus helped to define the identity of the social groups involved in the care relationship. Older people have essentially been defined on the basis of their vulnerability, their loss of autonomy and according to a user-consumer figure. Caregivers have gradually emerged as a category and as a collective actor likely to raise public awareness on suffering and inequality (Cefaï, 2007) and to mobilize a political voice (Verloo, 2007). Female workers paid for caring have been the subject of discussion, but almost exclusively from the issue of their qualification/non-qualification to provide personal assistance services to elderly people living with a disability. Four narratives of shared responsibility for caring between the state, the market, the third sector, and the family emerge from discourse analysis: 1) Mixed Competitive Regulation; 2) Competitive Market Regulation; 3) Social-Statist Regulation; 4) Mixed State/Third Sector Regulation. Each of these narratives is carried by different alliances of actors and mobilizes different configurations of the problem definition, the solution to be adopted, the cares and identities as well as discursive postures regarding the sexual division of care work. In conclusion, three main conclusions emerge as to the reproduction and the contestation of social...
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2018
Open Access Date: 24 October 2018
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/31885
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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