Nouvelle avenue thérapeutique pour traiter une infection par le VIH-1

Authors: Desrosiers, Vincent
Advisor: Tremblay, Michel J.
Abstract: Macrophages plays an important role in HIV-1 infection. These cells are suspected to act as a viral reservoir preventing complete virus eradication in infected individuals. Following a transcriptomic study, fifty genes were selected based upon their differential expression between non-infected, infected and bystander populations. One of those genes, coding for Gamma-Glutamyl Hydrolase (GGH), an enzyme involved in folate metabolism, was upregulated rapidly after HIV-1 infection before returning to a basal state. We propose that in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM), a low folate concentration may play a protective role by limiting nucleotide availability for HIV-1 during the process of infection. We have developed an experimental model based on MDM identification productively infected with a R5 tropism HIV-1 molecular clone expressing all viral genes and a small membrane murine protein (Heat Stable Antigen; HSA). This virus was used to infect MDM transfected with small interfering RNAs (siRNA) or exposed to chemical inhibitors. The purpose of those experiments was to assess the effect of genetic downregulation of important folate proteins during HIV-1 infection. Between 3 and 18 days post-infection, percentage of productively infected cells was evaluated with flow cytometry or ELISA targeting the viral capsid protein p24. Downregulation of important enzymes involved in intracellular folate retention (e.g. GGH, FPGS and MTHFR) increased the number of cells productively infected with HIV-1. Also, Raltitrexed (RTX), a specific inhibitor of Tymidylate Synthase (TYMS), was able to inhibit viral replication when used before infection. Those results show that an interplay between HIV-1 and folate cycle may play a decisive role in MDM susceptibility to virus infection.
Document Type: Mémoire de maîtrise
Issue Date: 2018
Open Access Date: 25 September 2018
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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