Les technologies de l'information et de la communication (TIC) et le travail des professionnels de la santé en zones rurales et éloignées dans les pays en développement : cas du Mali

Authors: Mbemba, Gisèle Irène Claudine
Advisor: Gagnon, Marie-PierreHamelin-Brabant, Louise
Abstract: The expansion of the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in health systems enable some health professionals in developing countries to use ICTs in rural areas and to provide better health care to the population. However, studies on the impact of the use of ICTs on the work of health professionals in rural areas in developing countries are rare. The objectives of this two-part research were: 1) To explore the evolution of perceptions related to the recruitment and retention of health professionals in the four district health centers in Mali that have implemented telehealth in the context of the Equi-Reshus project; 2) To identify the variables influencing the perceived impact of telehealth on the recruitment and retention of professionals in this context; 3) To explore the perceptions of health workers about the implementation and use of telehealth as well as the level of motivation and satisfaction in their work in rural and remote areas of Mali. A correlative and exploratory descriptive design was used for the whole of this research. Concerning the first part, the influence of the telehealth project on the recruitment and retention of health professionals in rural areas in Mali, a longitudinal study has allowed to compare the perceptions of 16 participants who completed the questionnaire at time 1 and time 2. Data analysis was based on general descriptive analyzes for T1 and T2-matched samples, for the two dependent variables and the ten independent variables, as well as statistical tests to detect differences between T1 and T2. For the second part of this research, the use and perceptions of telehealth by health professionals in rural Mali, 17 participants were interviewed. A thematic content analysis, based on the elements of the conceptual framework of the study, was undertaken to identify the main themes. Results for the first component showed that the variable "access to ICTs" has evolved, as several healthcare professionals have been able to use IT tools, while the number of ICT users has not increased. We also found that health professionals participating in the project were informed of the availability of telehealth in the centers, but that few were trained to use them. Moreover, our results showed that changes in perceptions did not significantly change between T1 and T2. For the second part, our findings show that the implementation and use of ICTs by healthcare professionals is confronted with problems that can be overcome. In this case, it is about training of personnel, availability of equipment, accessibility to energy sources and the Internet. Despite this, several benefits related to the use of ICT by health professionals were highlighted. These benefits are for the most part those identified as recruitment and retention factors in the reference model. Finally, our findings showed that perceptions of health professionals argued that access to ICTs or telehealth could promote their recruitment and retention in rural and remote areas. In sum, the results of this study show how the use of ICTs in the health systems of developing countries still encounters difficulties despite the adoption of these by health professionals. It is therefore necessary and urgent for the health authorities to be able to invest both in the improvement of health facilities and in the in-service training of staff, especially by facilitating the implantation and use of ICT in rural and remote areas. Keywords: ICT; Telehealth; Training; Professionals healthcare; Recruitment and retention; Rural areas; Mali
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2018
Open Access Date: 10 September 2018
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/31125
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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