Évaluation des mesures de soutien aux personnes et aux familles : une approche par microsimulations comptables et comportementales

Authors: Clavet, Nicholas-James
Advisor: Lacroix, Guy; Michaud, Pierre-Carl
Abstract: Over the next few years, the population aging will exert significant pressure on the public finances of Canada and Quebec. In a worrying fiscal context, the governments of Canada and Quebec will be tempted to reduce or at least limit their spending on expensive programs, such as person and family support programs. This thesis, therefore, seeks to develop and use tools enabling the assessment of the effects of support measures for persons and families before they are implemented 1) on their income, 2) on their working behavior, and 3) on public finances. Assessment of the effects of a support measure prior to its implementation (ex-ante evaluation) requires the use of special methods since it is not possible to deduce the effects of the measure from collected data. It is, therefore, necessary to use an accounting and behavioral microsimulation approach. The support measures for persons and families studied in this thesis focus on two themes: 1) poverty reduction through direct benefits to persons and families, and 2) reduction of net childcare expenses for parents. Chapter 1 examines the impact of a proposal for a guaranteed minimum income made by the Comité consultatif de lutte contre la pauvreté et l'exclusion sociale du Québec(Advisory Committee to Combat Poverty and Social Exclusion in Quebec). The analyses are carried out using accounting microsimulations and a structural discrete choice model of labor supply taking into account the tax system. The simulations show that the application of the original proposal has significant negative impacts on the labor market participation rate of low-income individuals and that its cost exceeds $2 billion annually. This exercise demonstrates that, contrary to what is generally believed, mechanisms to ensure a guaranteed income can have the effect of increasing the incidence of low income rather than reducing it. Chapter 2 examines the effects of increasing the age of eligibility for Old Age Security benefits and the Guaranteed Income Supplement from 65 to 67 years of age. The analyses are carried out using a reduced-form dynamic microsimulation model that projects Canada's socioeconomic evolution up to 2030. The simulations show that in the long term (i.e., 2030), increasing the age of eligibility increases the federal government's net revenues by $6.9 billion, but decreases the provincial revenues by $620 million. With constant labor and saving behavior, this reform increases the low-income rate of 65 to 66-year-olds (about 100,000 more seniors in low-income situations) from 6% to 17%. The poorest and the women are the most v penalized. Chapter 3 examines the effects of the three main public funding measures for childcare services (the provincial tax credit, the federal tax deduction, and direct childcare subsidies) on family income, women's participation to the labor market, and the public finances of Quebec and Canada. These effects are estimated using a structural model of labor supply comparable to that used in Chapter 1. The simulations show that child care financing measures increase overall and significantly the income of families after taxes, transfers, and childcare expenses; The measures also have a greater impact on the income and work of single mothers than on mothers in couple. Their abolition would result in substantial savings in provincial public finances but would be of little use to the federal government. Chapter 4 examines the effects of two reforms of childcare services' public funding on families and public finances. The first reform was introduced in 2015 by the Government of Quebec, while the second was a reform proposal made by the Commission de révision permanente des programmes (Permanent Program Review Committee) and the Commission d'examen sur la fiscalité québécoise (Québec Taxation Review Committee). The effects of these reforms are assessed using accounting microsimulations. A major finding of the analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the two reforms is that the reform of the two commissions is more advantageous than the current reform of the Government of Quebec for families and provincial government. In addition, reform proposals can be made to lead the federal government to make a greater contribution to childcare funding, which limits the financial burden of childcare costs for families...
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2018
Open Access Date: 31 August 2018
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/30983
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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